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The 100+ Most Common Italian Adverbs

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“Adjectives are the sugar of literature and adverbs the salt,” said the great American writer Henry James. So, let’s add some salt to your Italian with this amazing list of the 100+ most common Italian adverbs by ItalianPod101!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Italian Table of Contents
  1. What is an Adverb?
  2. List of the Most Common Italian Adverbs
  3. Improve Your Italian While Having Fun with ItalianPod101

1. What is an Adverb?

Top Verbs

An adverb is an element in a sentence that can’t be inflected and which modifies the meaning of another element. As in Henry James’ quote, it adds something to a sentence, a nuance that makes it more meaningful and rich.

Let’s see an example:

  • Angela was walking back home.
  • Angela was tiredly walking back home. 

The adverb “tiredly” adds a new layer of meaning to the sentence and clarifies the image we may create of Angela while she was walking back to her house.

Well, now that we’ve convinced you of the importance of Italian adverbs, let’s see our amazing Italian adverbs list.

Woman Sitting on Floor with Speech Bubble above Her Head

2. List of the Most Common Italian Adverbs

1 – Italian Adverbs of Time

We start our list with the Italian time adverbs:

  • Oggi (“Today”)
    • Oggi Marta e Lorenzo si sposano.
      “Today, Marta and Lorenzo are getting married.”
  • Ieri (“Yesterday”)
    • Sono tornato ieri dall’Italia.
      “I came back from Italy yesterday.”
  • Domani (“Tomorrow”)
    • Domani andremo a Roma.
      “Tomorrow, we’ll go to Rome.”
  • Presto (“Soon”)
    • Spero di vederti presto.
      “I hope to see you soon.”
  • Tardi (“Late”)
    • Elena arriva sempre tardi.
      “Elena always arrives late.”
  • Prima (“Before”)
    • Prima di tornare a casa, sono andato al supermercato.
      “Before coming home, I went to the supermarket.”
  • Dopo (“After”)
    • Dopo aver cambiato lavoro, la mia vita è migliorata.
      “After I changed my job, my life got better.”
  • Ora (“Now”)
    • Ora sono troppo stanca per uscire.
      “Now I’m too tired to go out.”
  • Stamattina (“This morning”)
    • Stamattina Maria si è svegliata molto presto.
      “Maria woke up very early this morning.”
  • Stasera (“Tonight”)
    • Ti va di andare al cinema stasera?
      “Would you like to go to the cinema tonight?”
  • Subito (“Immediately”)
    • Giovanni, vieni subito qui!
      “Giovanni, come here immediately!”
  • Già (“Already”)
    • Ho già visto questo film.
      “I’ve already seen this movie.”
  • Ancora (“Again,” “Yet”)
    • Non ho ancora incontrato la ragazza di mio fratello.
      “I haven’t met my brother’s girlfriend yet.”
  • Ormai (“By now,” “Already”)
    • Ormai devono essere arrivati a Milano.
      “They must have arrived in Milan by now.”
  • Poi (“Then”)
    • Siamo andati a fare shopping e poi a cena.
      “We went shopping and then to dinner.”
A Couple Window Shopping Downtown

2 – Italian Adverbs of Frequency

Here’s a list of the most common Italian frequency adverbs:

  • Mai (“Never”)
    • Non sono mai stato in Cina.
      “I’ve never been to China.”
  • Sempre (“Always”)
    • Quando viaggio, porto sempre con me un buon libro.
      “When I travel, I always bring a good book with me.”
  • Spesso (“Often”)
    • I miei genitori sono spesso fuori città.
      “My parents are often out of town.”
  • Raramente (“Rarely”)
    • Mangio carne raramente.
      “I rarely eat meat.”
  • Di solito (“Usually”)
    • Di solito il sabato esco con i miei amici.
      “I usually go out with my friends on Saturday.”
  • A volte (“Sometimes”)
    • A volte mia sorella si alza all’alba e va a correre.
      “Sometimes my sister gets up at dawn and goes jogging.”
  • Costantemente (“Constantly”)
    • Luigi controlla costantemente il cellulare.
      “Luigi constantly checks his mobile phone.”

3 – Italian Adverbs of Place

  • Qui (“Here”)
    • Potremmo fermarci qui e fare un pic nic.
      “We could stop here and have a picnic.”
  • (“There”)
    • Non andare là!
      “Don’t go there!”
  • (“There”)
    • Vorrei andare lì domani.
      “Tomorrow, I’d like to go there.”
  • Ovunque (“Wherever”)
    • Il mio cane mi segue ovunque io vada.
      “My dog ​​follows me wherever I go.”
  • Dappertutto (“Everywhere”)
    • Ho cercato le chiavi dappertutto, ma non le trovo.
      “I looked for the keys everywhere, but I can’t find them.”
  • Dentro (“Inside”) 
    • Il sale è dentro la dispensa.
      “Salt is inside the pantry.”
  • Fuori (“Outside”) 
    • Per favore, vai a fumare fuori.
      “Please, go smoke outside.”
  • Giù (“Down,” “Below”)
    • Maria è scesa giù al primo piano.
      “Maria went down to the first floor.”
  • Su (“Up”)
    • Guarda su, il cielo è bellissimo.
      “Look up, the sky is beautiful.”
  • Lassù (“Up there”)
    • Lassù c’è un bellissimo castello.
      “There’s a beautiful castle up there.”
  • Laggiù (“Down there”)
    • Laggiù c’è un ottimo ristorante.
      “There’s a great restaurant down there.”
  • Sopra (“Above”)
    • Sopra il tavolo c’è un vaso.
      “Above the table, there’s a vase.”
  • Sotto (“Below”) 
    • Sotto il tavolo c’è il gatto.
      “Below the table, there’s the cat.”
  • Vicino (“Nearby”)
    • Ho parcheggiato vicino.
      “I’ve parked nearby.”
  • Lontano (“Far away”)
    • Matteo si è trasferito lontano, in un’altra città.
      “Matteo has moved far away, in another city.”
  • Intorno (“Around”)
    • C’è un bel giardino intorno alla casa.
      “There’s a nice garden around the house.”
  • Altrove (“Somewhere else”)
    • In questo momento vorrei tanto essere altrove.
      “At this moment, I’d really like to be somewhere else.”
  • Davanti (“In front of”)
    • Di fronte alla chiesa c’è un bel caffè.
      “There’s a nice café in front of the church.”
  • Dietro (“Behind,” “Back”)
    • Si è nascosto dietro la tenda.
      “He hid behind the curtain.”
  • Ci (“There”) [also used as a desinence]
    • Mi farebbe molto piacere esserci.
      “I’d really like to be there.”
  • Vi (“There”) [also used as a desinence]
  • Ne (“[Away] from there/here”)
    • Se ne sono andati da due ore.
      “They went away two hours ago.”
  • Via (“Away”)
    • È tardi, andiamo via.
      “It’s late, let’s go away.”
People Going on Holiday

4 – Italian Adverbs of Manner

A tip: You can turn many Italian adjectives into adverbs of manner by adding –mente to feminine adjectives, which is a pattern you’ll notice often in this section. But it doesn’t always work. For example, you can’t turn cattivo into an adverb by simply adding –mente. 

The most important Italian adverbs of manner are:

  • Lentamente (“Slowly”)
    • Il latte caldo va bevuto lentamente.
      “Hot milk must be drunk slowly.”
  • Velocemente (“Quickly”)
    • Ho mangiato velocemente e sono tornato al lavoro.
      “I ate quickly and got back to work.”
  • Attentamente (“Carefully”)
    • Ascolta attentamente quello che dico.
      “Listen carefully to what I say.”
  • Facilmente (“Easily”)
    • Lucia ha passato l’esame facilmente.
      “Lucia easily passed the exam.”
  • Semplicemente (“Simply”)
    • Ho semplicemente detto di sì alla sua offerta.
      “I simply said yes to his offer.”
  • Dolcemente (“Sweetly”)
    • La baciò dolcemente sulle labbra.
      “He sweetly kissed her on her lips.”
  • Tranquillamente (“Calmly”)
    • Un uomo cammina tranquillamente sulla spiaggia.
      “A man calmly walks on the beach.”
  • Perfettamente (“Perfectly”)
    • Questo vestito ti sta perfettamente.
      “This dress fits you perfectly.”
  • Bene (“Well”)
    • La presentazione è andata molto bene.
      “The presentation went very well.”
  • Male (“Badly,” “Rudely”)
    • Monica ha risposto male a sua madre.
      “Monica responded rudely to her mother.”
  • Chiaramente (“Clearly”)
    • Il professore ha spiegato tutto molto chiaramente.
      “The professor explained everything very clearly.”
  • Letteralmente (“Literally”)
    • Sono letteralmente senza parole.
      “I’m literally out of words.”
  • Onestamente (“Honestly”)
    • Onestamente, non so di cosa stai parlando.
      “Honestly, I don’t know what you’re talking about.”
  • Gentilmente (“Gently”)
    • La neve cominciò gentilmente a cadere.
      “Snow started gently to fall.”
  • Bruscamente (“Abruptly”)
    • L’auto frenò bruscamente.
      “The car broke abruptly.”
  • Improvvisamente (“Suddenly”)
    • Improvvisamente è spuntato il sole.
      “Suddenly, the sun came out.”
  • Freddamente (“Coldly”)
    • Ci accolsero freddamente.
      “They received us coldly.”
  • Calorosamente (“Warmly”)
    • Ci siamo salutati calorosamente e siamo partiti.
      “We said goodbye warmly and left.”
  • Correttamente (“Correctly,” “Properly”)
    • Sul lavoro si è sempre comportato correttamente.
      “At work, he’s always behaved properly.”
  • Duramente (“Hardly,” “Hard”)
    • Ho lavorato duramente per la mia carriera.
      “I worked hard for my career.”
  • Volentieri (“Gladly”)
    • Sarei venuto con voi volentieri, ma non potevo.
      “I would have come with you gladly, but I couldn’t.”
  • Forte (“Strongly,” “Quickly”)
    • Federica correva forte incontro a suo padre.
      “Federica was running quickly toward her father.”
Girl Running

5 – Italian Adverbs of Degree or Addition

  • Molto (“Much”)
    • Il film non mi è piaciuto molto.
      “I didn’t like the film much.”
  • Poco (“Little”)
    • A cena ho mangiato poco.
      “At dinner, I ate little.”
  • Troppo (“Too much”)
    • Stamattina ho dormito troppo.
      “I slept too much this morning.”
  • Piuttosto (“Quite,” “Rather”)
    • I mobili sono piuttosto belli, ma vecchi.
      “The furniture is quite nice, but old.”
  • Abbastanza (“Quite,” “Sufficiently”) 
    • Maria è abbastanza soddisfatta del nuovo lavoro.
      “Maria is quite satisfied with her new job.”
  • Più (“More,” “Most”)
    • Matteo è più bello di Antonio.
      “Matteo is more handsome than Antonio.”
  • Meno (“Less”)
    • Camminiamo meno di un tempo.
      “We walk less than (what we used to do) once.”
  • Meglio (“Better”)
    • Oggi mia nonna si sente meglio.
      “Today, my grandmother is feeling better.”
  • Peggio (“Worse”)
    • L’esame era difficile, ma pensavo peggio.
      “The exam was difficult, but I thought it was worse.”
  • Moltissimo (“Very much”)
    • La cena mi è piaciuta moltissimo.
      “I liked the dinner very much.”
  • Pochissimo (“Very little”)
    • Mio cugino guadagna pochissimo.
      “My cousin earns very little.”
  • Come (“How,” “Like,” “As much as”)
    • Paolo è come un fratello per me.
      “Paolo is like a brother to me.”
  • Inoltre (“Moreover”)
    • Volevo dirti, inoltre, che abbiamo finito lo zucchero.
      “I wanted to tell you, moreover, that we’re out of sugar.”
  • Pure (“Also,” “Too”)
    • Vorrebbe venire pure Flavia, va bene?
      “Flavia would like to come too, is it okay?”
  • Persino (“Even”)
    • Persino mio figlio si è divertito.
      “Even my son had a great time.”
  • Addirittura (“Even”)
    • Era così freddo che siamo addirittura partiti prima della fine del concerto.
      “It was so cold that we even left before the end of the concert.”
A Concert

6 – Italian Question Adverbs

  • Dove (“Where”)
    • Dov’è andata Gianna?
      “Where did Gianna go?”
  • Quando (“When”)
    • Quando tornerai dagli Stati Uniti?
      “When will you come back from the United States?”
  • Come (“How”)
    • Come ti senti oggi?
      “How are you feeling today?”
  • Perché (“Why”)
    • Perché non ci raggiungete più tardi?
      “Why don’t you join us later?”

7 – Italian Adverbs of Exclamation

  • Come (used to emphasize a sentence)
    • Come sono felice di vederti!
      “I’m so happy to see you!”
  • Quanto (used to emphasize a sentence)
    • Quanto mi manchi!
      “I miss you so much!”

8 – Italian Adverbs of Affirmation, Negation, and Doubt 

  • (“Yes”)
    • Sì, mi piacerebbe venire a cena con te.
      “Yes, I’d like to go to dinner with you.”
  • Certo (“Of course”)
    • Certo, ormai è troppo tardi.
      “Of course, now it’s too late.”
  • Davvero (“Really”)
    • Ho davvero voglia di un gelato.
      “I’d really like an icecream.”
  • Sicuramente (“For sure”)
    • Io e mio marito ci saremo sicuramente.
      “My husband and I will be there for sure.”
  • Proprio (“Really”)
    • Sono proprio contento che siate venuti a trovarmi.
      “I’m really happy that you went to see me.”
  • No (“No”)
    • A: Vieni con noi? 
      B: No, sono stanco.

      A: “Will you come with us?”
      B: “No, I’m tired.”
  • Non (“Not”)
    • Giorgio non è andato a scuola oggi.
      “Giorgio didn’t go to school today.”
  • Nemmeno (“Even [negative],” “Neither,” “Not even”)
    • Nemmeno io sopporto quella donna.
      “Even I can’t stand that woman.”
  • Affatto (“At all”)
    • Questo vino non mi piace affatto.
      “I don’t like this wine at all.”
  • Forse (“Maybe”)
    • Forse stasera sono libera.
      “Maybe tonight I’m free.”
  • Probabilmente (“Probably”)
    • Probabilmente alla festa ci sarà anche Mauro.
      “Mauro will probably be at the party, too.”

3. Improve Your Italian While Having Fun with ItalianPod101

More Essential Verbs

We hope you enjoyed learning about Italian adverbs with us, and that you learned some new words for your next conversation! Are there any adverbs we missed that you want to know? Let us know in the comments, and we’ll do our best to help you out! 

ItalianPod101.com is an extensive source for everything Italian, including amazing word lists, comprehensive blog posts (like our articles about Italian adjectives and nouns), apps, video lessons, and everything you need to improve your knowledge of this fascinating language. And learning with us is so fun that you won’t ever feel tired! Check out our courses, find Italian adverbs exercises and in-depth lessons, and start on the road to fluency.

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A Simple Guide to Italian Verb Conjugation

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Verbs are everywhere! Whatever you’re trying to say or write in Italian, you’re going to need to use a verb and a subject. And guess what? Right there, you already need to conjugate the verb to use it correctly. 

  • Vado al cinema. Vieni con me? Cosa dici? 
    “I go to the movies. Will you come with me? What do you say?”

For example, in this simple sentence, you’ll have to know the conjugations of the verbs andare (“to go”), venire (“to come”), and dire (“to say”).

Italian verb conjugation might seem tough at first, but with a few tips (and ItalianPod101’s resources), you’ll learn how to conjugate Italian verbs and become a real pro!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Italian Table of Contents
  1. What Does Conjugation Mean?
  2. Verb Groups
  3. Conjugation Examples
  4. Irregular Verbs and Their Conjugations
  5. Quiz
  6. Tips to Improve and Practice Your Italian Conjugations

1. What Does Conjugation Mean?

What is a conjugation and what do you need it for? A conjugation is a basic process—common to most languages—by which you change the verb ending in order to indicate who is doing the action (me, you, he/she, we, you, they), with what intention (realistic, wish, opinion, order, etc.), and when (present, past, future, etc.).

Woman with Question Marks above Her Head

Who? When? What intention? Ask questions to start conjugating.

Also, in Italian verb conjugation, you may have to:

  • Conjugate auxiliary verbs (avere/essere = “to have”/”to be”) 
  • Conjugate modal verbs (verbi servili: potere, dovere, volere, ecc. = “can, must, want, etc.”) 
  • Add a participio passato (“past participle”) 
  • Watch out for Italian irregular verbs and irregular verb forms (dire, fare, andare, stare, venire, perdere, chiudere, and a few more…)

Let’s look at this in more detail:

1- Who?

1st person singularIo“I”
2nd person singulartu / Lei*“you” (casual) / “you” (formal)
3rd person singularlui / lei“he” / “she”
1st person pluralnoi“we”
2nd person pluralvoi“we”
3rd person pluralloro“they”

*It’s important to remember that the polite form of address is in the third person singular feminine. So, for example, the phrase “What do you eat?” can be:

  • Tu cosa mangi? (informal)
  • Lei cosa mangia? (formal)

It can be a little confusing at the beginning, but since the formal way of address is extremely common in Italian, it’s a good idea to practice using it from the very beginning.

Remember that the person who is doing the action is very important because, in Italian verb conjugation, every person of the verb has a different ending. But we’ll see that in a little bit.

2- With what intention?

In every sentence, you can ask “What is the intention of this action?” This intention is called il modo (“the mood”), and it reflects whether the intention is realistic, possible, or uncertain, or if it’s a wish, an opinion, or an order. 

Let’s look at this Italian conjugation table and study the moods to determine what they mean.

Indicativo
(“Indicative”)
Mangio una pizza.
(“I eat a pizza.”)
Used to express a real and certain fact. This is, by far, the most common mood in Italian.
Conjuntivo
(“Subjunctive”)
Credo che sia meglio.
(“I think it is better.”)
Used to express an opinion, a possibility, a desire, or something uncertain. It’s usually supported by certain verbs and conjunctions.
Condizionale
(“Conditional”)
Vorrei andare.
(“I would like to go.”)
Used to express a probability or a hypothesis. Usually, one fact depends on another.
Imperativo
(“Imperative”)
Fai i compiti!
(“Do your homework!”)
Used to give an order.
The examples above are called modi finiti (“finite moods”) because they define the action in a precise way, and they’re conjugated according to the person and the time. The following ones, on the other hand, are modi indefiniti (“indefinite moods”) as they don’t have a specific subject. They usually depend on other verbs, and—very good news—they don’t change!
Infinito
(“Infinitive”)
Mangiare
(“To eat”)
It’s an undetermined action, used as the basic form of the verb.
Gerundio
(“Gerund”)
Sto dormendo.
(“I am sleeping.”)
Often used in combination with stare, it can have many intentions.
Participio
(“Participle”)
Serata danzante
(“Dancing night”)
A word formed from a verb and used as an adjective.

3- When?

Every action takes place in a specific time, called tempo (literally “time,” or “tense” in the context of a conjugation). The Italian tenses are presente, passato, and futuro, and they can be tempi semplici (“simple tenses”) when they’re made of just one word, or tempi composti (“compound tenses”) when they’re formed by the auxiliary (essere/avere) and the past participle.

Two Hearts Drawn in the Sand on a Beach

Io amo, tu ami… (“I love, you love…”) The best conjugation of all!

Let’s look at the full Italian conjugations chart of all possible moods and tenses with the best Italian verb: amare (“to love”).

MODITEMPI SEMPLICITEMPI COMPOSTI
FinitiIndicativoPresente | AmoPassato prossimo | Ho amato
Imperfetto | AmavoTrapassato prossimo | Avevo amato
Passato remoto | AmaiTrapassato remoto | Ebbi amato
Futuro semplice | AmeròFuturo anteriore | Avrò amato
CongiuntivoPresente | Che io amiPassato | Che io abbia amato
Imperfetto | Che io amassiTrapassato | Che io avessi amato
CondizionalePresente | AmereiPassato | Avrei amato
ImperativoPresente | Ama!
IndefinitiGerundioPresente | AmandoPassato | Avendo amato
ParticipioPresente | Amante
Passato | Amato
InfinitoPresente | Amare

It’s true that there are quite a lot of tenses! But keep in mind that the Italian conjugations you’ll really have to master are the ones that are in bold, as they are by far the most common. They’re also the most practical ones for meaningful communication up to an intermediate Italian level. That sounds better, doesn’t it?

2. Verb Groups

Top Verbs

In the Italian conjugation of verbs, there are three basic groups, divided according to the verb ending in the infinitive:

  • 1st with the infinitive in -ARE
  • 2nd with the infinitive in -ERE (verbs ending in -arre, -orre, and -urre belong to this group)
  • 3rd with the infinitive in -IRE (verbs that add a -isc suffix belong to this group)

Regular Italian verbs are simple to conjugate because they all follow the same pattern, as you can see in the following chart:

Io (“I”)tu (“you”)lui/lei (“s/he”)noi  (“we”)voi (“you”)loro (“they”)
AMARE (“to love”)AmoAmiAmaAmiàmoAmàteÀmano
CREDERE (“to believe”)CredoCrediCredeCrediàmoCredèteCrèdono
DORMIRE (“to sleep”)DormoDormiDormeDormiàmoDormìteDòrmono*

*Notice how the position of the stress changes syllable. Try and read the three basic present conjugations, just to familiarize yourself with the rhythm of it.

As you can see, there are no major changes from one group to the other. But things do get a bit more complicated with Italian irregular verb conjugations, which involve some of the most common verbs.

3. Conjugation Examples

Negative Verbs

Now that you know that Italian conjugations are divided into three groups, let’s see in greater detail how each group behaves according to the person (who), the tense (when), and the mood (with what intention).

1- Verbs in -ARE

AMARE (“To love”) 

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute Past*ImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
ioamoamaiamavoameròamiamerei
tuamiamastiamaviameraiamiamerestiama
lui/leiamaamòamavaameràamiamerebbe
noiamiamoamammoamavamoameremoamiamoameremmoamiamo
voiamateamasteamavateamereteamiateameresteamate
loroamanoamaronoamavanoamerannoaminoamerebbero

PARLARE (“To talk”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute Past*ImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
ioparloparlaiparlavoparleròparliparlerei
tuparliparlastiparlaviparleraiparliparlerestiparla
lui/leiparlaparlòparlavaparleràparliparlerebbe
noiparliamoparlammoparlavamoparleremoparliamoparleremmoparliamo
voiparlateparlasteparlavateparlereteparliateparleresteparlate
loroparlateparlaronoparlavanoparlerannoparlinoparlerebbero

GIOCARE (“To play”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute Past*ImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
iogiocogiocaigiocavogiocherò*giochi*giocherei*
tugiochi*giocastigiocavigiocherai*giochi*giocheresti*gioca
lui/leigiocagiocògiocavagiocherà*giochi*giocherebbe*
noigiochiamo*giocammogiocavamogiocheremo*giochiamo*giocheremmo*giochiamo*
voigiocategiocastegiocavategiocherete*giochiate*giochereste*giocate
lorogiocanogiocaronogiocavanogiochino*giochino*giocherebbero*

*Notice how, whenever the ending of the conjugation starts with i or e, the root adds an h in order to maintain the hard K sound of giocare. This will happen for all the verbs of the first group that end in -care or gare. So, for verbs in -care or gare:

C + I, E = CHI, CHE (in order to keep the hard K sound)
G + I, E = GHI, GHE (in order to keep the hard G sound)

Let’s see some examples:

  • Pagare (“to pay”)
    Paghi tu? (“Will you pay?”)
  • Cercare (“to look for”)
    Cerchiamo un bar. (“We look for a bar.”)
  • Giocare (“to play”)
    Giocheresti con me? (“Would you play with me?”)
  • Litigare (“to fight”)
    Non litighiamo! (“Let’s not fight!”)
  • Mancare (“to miss”)
    Mi manchi tanto! (“I miss you so much!”)
  • Sporcare (“to get dirty”)
    Ti sporchi sempre… (“You always get dirty…”)
  • Sprecare (“to waste”)
    Perché sprechi la carta? (“Why do you waste paper?”)
  • Navigare (“to sail”)
    Navigheremo per tre notti. (“We will sail for three nights.”)

Wait… Didn’t we tell you earlier that the only verbs you really needed to master were presente, passato prossimo, imperfetto, futuro, condizionale, and imperativo (“present, present perfect, imperfect, future, conditional, and imperative”)? 

You’re absolutely right! As a matter of fact, the absolute past (passato remoto) is mostly used in literary writing and very formal speech about things that happened a very long time ago. So you definitely don’t have to worry about it too much. Just be aware of it, just in case you encounter it while reading a story.

Do you know where you might actually hear passato remoto a lot? In the south of Italy, in Sicily for example, because southern dialects have no passato prossimo in their grammar. For this reason, people have historically tended to use this tense more often than other Italians. 

Sicily, Italy

Andai in Sicilia. (“I went to Sicily.”) Sicilians use passato remoto a lot!

On the other hand, the one that you’ll really be using all the time (in combination with the imperfect) is the present perfect (passato prossimo), which is formed by the auxiliary essere or avere (“to be” or “to have”) and the past participle. But we’ll see more about that in a little bit. For now, just take a look at what it’s like.

Passato Prossimo – AMARE
ioho amato
tuhai amato
lui/ leiha amato
noiabbiamo amato
voiavete amato
lorohanno amato

2- Verbs in -ERE

CREDERE (“To believe”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveSubjunctiveImperative
PresentAbsolute Past*ImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
iocredocredetticredevicrederòcredacrederei
tucredicredesticredevicrederaicredacrederesticredi
lui/leicredecredettecredevacrederàcredacrederebbe
noicrediamocredemmocredevamocrederemocrediamocrederemmocrediamo
voicredetecredestecredevatecrederetecrediatecrederestecredete
lorocredonocrederonocredevanocrederannocredanocrederebbero

PRENDERE (“To take”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute PastImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
ioprendopresi*prendevoprenderòprendaprenderei
tuprendiprendestiprendeviprenderaiprendaprenderestiprendi
lui/leiprendeprese*prendevaprenderàprendaprenderebbe
noiprendiamoprendemmoprendevamoprenderemoprendiamoprenderemmoprendiamo
voiprendeteprendesteprendevateprendereteprendiateprenderesteprendete
loroprendonopresero*prendevanoprenderannoprendanoprenderebbero

*Just to complicate things a bit further, most verbs of the second group in -ERE have an irregular passato remoto (“absolute past”), in which the io, lui/lei, loro (“I,” “s/he,” “they”) forms can change considerably from the root. But again, this tense is rarely used in spoken Italian, so you’ll just need to recognize them in case you encounter them while reading. 

LEGGERE (“To read”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute PastImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
ioleggo**lessi*leggevoleggeròleggaleggerei
tuleggileggestileggevileggeraileggaleggerestileggi
lui/leileggelesse*leggevaleggeràleggaleggerebbe
noileggiamoleggemmoleggevamoleggeremoleggiamoleggeremmoleggiamo
voileggeteleggesteleggevateleggereteleggiateleggeresteleggete
loroleggono**lessero*leggevanoleggerannolegganoleggerebbero

*See the note above.

**Contrary to what happens to the -care / -gare verbs in the first group (they add an h to keep the hard sound in front of e or i), in the second conjugation, verbs in -cere and -gere change sound from soft to hard in front of the ending -o (io and loro – “I” and “them”). 

Mother Reading to Her Baby

Che piacere leggere! (“What a pleasure to read!”)

IO LEGGO [leggo – hard G] as in “gospel”
TU LEGGI [ledʒi – soft g] as in “giant”

Other common verbs that have the same behavior are:

  • Vincere (“to win”)
    Vinco sempre! (“I always win!”)
  • Conoscere (“to know”)
    Non ti conosco. (“I don’t know you.”)
  • Crescere (“to grow”)
    Come crescono questi bambini…! (“How do these kids grow…!”)
  • Nascere (“to be born”)
    In Italia nascono 50 bambini all’ora. (“In Italy, 50 babies are born every hour.”)
  • Correggere (“to correct”)
    Correggo i tuoi errori. (“I correct your mistakes.”)
  • Friggere (“to fry”)
    Friggo le patate. (“I fry potatoes.”)
  • Leggere (“to read”)
    I ragazzi leggono Pinocchio. (“Kids read Pinocchio.”)
  • Aggiungere (“to add”)
    Aggiungono sempre troppo sale! (“They always add too much salt!”)
  • Piangere (“to cry”)
    Quando sono triste piango. (“When I’m sad, I cry.”)

3- Verbs in -IRE

DORMIRE (“To sleep”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute PastImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
iodormodormiidormivodormiròdormadormirei
tudormidormistidormividormiraidormadormirestidormi
lui/leidormedormìdormivadormiràdormadormirebbe
noidormiamodormimmodormivamodormiremodormiamodormiremmodormiamo
voidormitedormistedormivatedormiretedormiatedormirestedormite
lorodormonodormironodormivanodormirannodormanodormirebbero

SENTIRE (“To hear” / “To feel”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute PastImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
iosentosentiisentivosentiròsentasentirei
tusentisentistisentivisentiraisentasentirestisenti
lui/leisentesentìsentivasentiràsentasentirebbe
noisentiamosentimmosentivamosentiremosentiamosentiremmosentiamo
voisentitesentistesentivatesentiretesentiatesentirestesentireste
lorosentonosentironosentivanosentirannosentanosentirebbero

CAPIRE (“To understand”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute PastImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
iocapisco*capiicapivocapiròcapiscacapirei
tucapisci**capisticapivicapiraicapiscacapiresticapisci
lui/leicapiscecapìcapivacapiràcapiscacapirebbe
noicapiamocapimmocapivamocapiremocapiamocapiremmocapiamo
voicapitecapistecapivatecapiretecapiatecapirestecapireste
lorocapisconocapironocapivanocapirannocapscanocapirebbero

*Did you notice something different about this conjugation? You’re absolutely right! Quite a few Italian verbs of the third group add an -isc suffix to the conjugation in the present, subjunctive, and imperative in the first singular (io, “I”),  second singular (tu, “you”), third singular (lui/lei, “s/he”), and third plural (loro, “they”).  


**Similarly to what happens to the verbs in the -cere and -gere that we just saw above, verbs that add the -isc suffix change sound from soft to hard in front of the endings -o and -a (io and loro – “I” and “them”).

IO CAPISCO [kapisko – hard K] as in “color”
TU CAPISCI [kapishi – soft sh] as in “sheep”

Other common verbs that have the same behavior are:

  • Capire (“to understand”)
    Capisco [capisko] / Capisci [capishi] tutto. (“I/you understand everything.”)
  • Costruire (“to build”)
    Costruisco [kostruisko] / Costruisci [costruishi] una casa. (“I/you build a house.”)
  • Finire (“to finish”)
      Finisco [finisko] / Finisci [finishi] subito! (“I/you finish right away!”)
  • Preferire (“to prefer”)
    Preferisco [preferisko] / Preferisci [preferishi] l’acqua. (“I/you prefer water.”)

    Now it’s your turn to try! Change the subject from io (“I”) to tu or lui/lei (“you” or “s/he”) and practice with the hard/soft pronunciation.
  • Proibire (“to forbid”)
    Io ti proibisco di andare! (“I forbid you to go!”) >> Lei ti ……………… di andare! (“He forbids you to go!”)
  • Pulire (“to clean”)
    Io pulisco la mia stanza. (“I clean my room.”) >> Tu …………….. la mia stanza. (“He cleans my room.”)
  • Punire (“to punish”)
    Non punisco gli sbagli. (“I don’t punish mistakes.”) >> Lui non ………… gli sbagli. (“He doesn’t punish mistakes.”)
  • Restiture (“to give back”)
    Io restituisco il libro. (“I give back the book.”)  >> Tu …………….. il libro. (“You give back the book.”)
  • Trasferire (“to transfer” / “to move”)
    Io mi trasferisco a Roma. (“I move to Rome.”) >> Tu ti …………….. a Roma. (“You move to Rome.”)

4. Irregular Verbs and Their Conjugations

Essential Verbs

As it often happens, some of the most common verbs are irregular and, although they continue to follow a pattern to a certain point, they can differ quite a lot from what you expect. 

Let’s start with the most important Italian irregular conjugations: essere (“to be”) and avere (“to have”). 

ESSERE (“To be”) 

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute PastImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
iosonofuierosaròsiasarei
tuseifosteerisaraisiasarestisii
lui/leiè*fuerasaràsiasarebbe
noisiamofummoeravamosaremosiamosaremmosiamo
voisietefosteeravatesaretesiatesarestesiate
lorosonofuronoeranosarannosianosarebbero

*The third person singular lui/lei è (“s/he is”) requires the grave accent to distinguish it from the conjunction e (“and”). Even if it might seem like a small detail, it’s considered a big mistake, so double your attention!


AVERE  (“To have”)

IndicativeSubjunctiveConditionalImperative
PresentAbsolute PastImperfectFuturePresentPresentPresent
ioho*ebbiavevoavròabbiaavrei
tuhai*avesteaveviavraiabbiaavrestiabbi
lui/leiha*ebbeavevaavràabbiaavrebbe
noiabbiamoavemmoavevamoavremoabbiamoavremmoabbiamo
voiaveteavesteavevateavreteabbiateavresteabbiate
lorohanno*ebberoavevanoavrannoabbianoavrebbero

*In Italian, you’ll never find the H at the beginning of a word, except for in foreign words such as “hotel” and the avere conjugation. For some reason, only the first singular (io, “I”), second singular (tu, “you”), third singular (lui/lei, “s/he”), and third plural (loro, “they”) in the present keep the H from the Latin conjugation habere. However, nothing changes in the pronunciation.

1- AVERE & ESSERE as auxiliaries with passato prossimo (“present perfect”)

Remember how we told you that the absolute past isn’t really used in colloquial Italian, and you would more often use the passato prossimo? Passato prossimo is formed with an auxiliary avere/essere and the past participle, which is formed as follows:

  • Verbs in -are >> -ato
    Ex: Parlare >> ho parlato  / Andare >> sono andato
  • Verbs in -ere >> -uto
    Ex: conoscere >> conosciuto
  • Verbs in -ire >> -ito
    Ex: dormire >> dormito
  • Essere >> stato 
  • Avere >> avuto

But how do you know which auxiliary to use? Here’s how it works. 

Transitive verbs (verbs that can have a direct object) form the passato prossimo with the auxiliary AVERE:

  • Amare Ho amato mio marito. (“I loved my husband.”)
  • Vendere Ho venduto la mia macchina. (“I sold my car.”)
  • Capire Ho capito quello che hai detto. (“I understood what you said.”)

Intransitive verbs (verbs that can’t have a direct object, and that usually indicate state, movement, change, etc.) form the passato prossimo with the auxiliary ESSERE:

  • Andare Sono andato al cinema. (“I went to the movies.”)
  • Venire Sono venuto con te. (“I came with you.”)
  • Uscire Sono uscito. (“I went out.”)

Other intransitive verbs that need the essere auxiliary are: salire, restare, tornare, ritornare, scendere, arrivare, cadere, entrare, and more.

Irregular verbs in Italian are quite frequent and common. Here’s a basic list with their conjugations in the present indicative, from which you can deduct the rest of the patterns.

DIREDAREFAREANDAREVENIREVOLERESAPEREPOTEREUSCIRE
iodicodofacciovadovengovogliosopossoesco
tudicidaifaivaivienivuoisaipuoiesci
lui/leidicedafavavienevuolesapuòesce
noidiciamodiamofacciamoandiamoveniamovogliamosappiamopossiamousciamo
voiditedatefateandatevenitevoletesapetepoteteuscite
lorodiconodannofannovannovannovoglionosannopossonoescono

Do you think that these are enough? No way! There are many more irregular verbs in Italian you can have fun with.

5. Quiz

Do you think that you know enough about Italian conjugations? Let’s do a quick test.

Fill in the blanks with the correct verb, paying attention to the subject and the tense:

Someone Filling Out Answers on Multiple Choice Test

Quiz time!

  1. Gli Italiani (amare) _______________ il caffè molto forte.
    (“Italians love very strong coffee.”)
  2. Domani tu (andare) ______________ al cinema con i tuoi amici?
    (“Tomorrow, will you go to the movies with your friends?”)
  3. Quando noi (essere) __________ piccoli, (credere) ___________ a Babbo Natale!
    (“When we were kids, we believed in Santa Claus!”)
  4. Io (volere) _____________ un gelato al limone, per favore.
    (“I would like a lemon ice cream, please.”)
  5. Un anno fa Laura (finire)  ______________ la scuola.
    (“A year ago, Laura finished school.”)

Let’s check the answers together:

1) Amano: This is the third person plural of the present.

2) Andrai: This is the second person singular of the future, since domani tells us that the action takes place in the future.

3) Eravamo, Credevamo: These are both first person plural of the imperfect, which is the tense we use for describing a generic time, not a specific moment.

4) Vorrei: Here, we use the first person singular of the conditional, since we’re expressing a wish or a polite request.

5) Ha finito: In this case, the past tense that we need is the passato prossimo, since it’s an action that occurred at a specific time.

Did you get them all correct?

6. Tips to Improve and Practice Your Italian Conjugations

Italian conjugations can seem like a lot to take in, but there are tricks and strategies that you can use to help you learn and remember them.

For example, you can try to memorize each verb as a chant (amo, ami, ama, amiamo, amate, amano…). This way, you’ll memorize the patterns and they’ll stick forever. Repetition always helps, so do as many exercises as you can. Reading, listening to music, and watching videos is also extremely useful in getting familiar with different kinds of verbs in context. 

And the final tip: Make sure that you take advantage of all the free resources available on ItalianPod101.com! You’ll even find mobile apps, lessons, and a guided learning system with your own teacher!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Italian

The 100+ Most Important Italian Verbs

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Verbs are concepts in motion and are a fundamental part of every language. But how many Italian language verbs should you learn to speak the language properly? Here at ItalianPod101, we believe that with the following 100+ Italian verbs, you’ll be able to face most circumstances with ease. And don’t be scared—with our examples and definitions, you’ll be able to master this Italian verbs list quickly. It’s Italian verbs made easy with ItalianPod101! 

But first, let’s take a look at Italian verb conjugation.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Italian Table of Contents
  1. Italian Regular Verbs
  2. Italian Irregular Verbs
  3. Reflexive Verbs in Italian
  4. Italian Verb Types & Their Meanings
  5. Italian Verb Placement in a Sentence
  6. ItalianPod101: A Great Source for Your Italian Learning!

1. Italian Regular Verbs

Buildings in Florence, Italy

There are three groups of Italian regular verbs, and their conjugation makes students happy. Indeed, they’re easy to learn and always the same. 

The three regular verb groups are: 

  • Verbs in -are
  • Verbs in -ere
  • Verbs in -ire

1- Verbs in -are

Here’s a chart with the -are Italian verb conjugation, and an example of how it works with the verb portare, meaning “to bring.”

1st sg (I)2nd sg (you)3rd sg (she)1st pl (we)2nd pl (you)3rd pl (they)
Stem + oStem + iStem + aStem + iamoStem + ateStem + ano
Io portoTu portiEgli portaNoi portiamoVoi portateEssi portano

Some examples of Italian verbs in -are are: 

1.

Amare
“to love”
Amo moltissimo viaggiare.
“I love traveling very much.”

2.

Pensare
“to think”
Io lavoro e penso a te.
“I work and I think about you.”

3.

Cominciare
“to start”
Oggi cominciamo un corso di italiano.
“Today, we start an Italian course.”

4.

Incontrare
“to meet”
Il Presidente incontra il suo staff nello Studio Ovale.
“The President meets his staff in the Oval Office.”

2- Verbs in -ere

Top Verbs

And now let’s see the conjugation of -ere verbs. We’ll use temere, meaning “to fear,” as an example.

1st sg (I)2nd sg (you)3rd sg (she)1st pl (we)2nd pl (you)3rd pl (they)
Stem + oStem + iStem + eStem + iamoStem + eteStem + ono
Io temoTu temiEgli temeNoi temiamoVoi temeteEssi temono

Some examples are: 

5.

Leggere
“to read”
Al mattino leggo il giornale.
“In the morning, I read the newspaper.”

6.

Mettere
“to put,” “to wear”
Marco mette sempre lo stesso cappello.
“Marco always wears the same hat.”

7.

Ridere
“to laugh”
Valeria ride sempre, è una ragazza davvero allegra.
“Valeria always laughs; she really is a joyful girl.”

8.

Prendere
“to take,” “to get”
Di solito prendono il caffè in questo bar.
“They usually get their coffee in this cafe.”
Woman Enjoying Breakfast in Venice, Italy

3- Verbs in -ire

The -ire verbs in Italian have two conjugations:

  • Verbs in -ire (simple)

This is the simplest conjugation. Here, we use the verb partire, meaning “to leave,” as an example.

1st sg (I)1st sg (I)3rd sg (she)1st pl (we)1st pl (we)3rd pl (they)
Stem + oStem + iStem + eStem + iamoStem + iteStem + ono
Io partoTu partiEgli parteNoi partiamoVoi partiteEssi partono

Other examples are:

9.

Aprire
“to open”
Il negozio apre dalle ore 10 alle ore 18.
“The shop is open from 10 to 18.”

10.

Sentire
“to hear,” “to feel”
Sento freddo, puoi chiudere la finestra per favore?
“I feel cold, can you please close the window?”
  • Verbs in -ire (with -isc-)

This is a slightly more complex conjugation. We’ll use the verb colpire, meaning “to hit,” as an example.

1st sg (I)2nd sg (you)3rd sg (she)1st pl (we)2nd pl (you)3rd pl (they)
Stem + iscoStem + isciStem + isceStem + iamoStem + iteStem + iscono
Io colpiscoTu colpisciEgli colpisceNoi colpiamoVoi colpiteEssi colpiscono

Examples: 

11.

Capire
“to understand”
Kate capisce benissimo l’italiano.
“Kate understands Italian very well.”

12. 

Pulire
“to clean”
Mia zia pulisce la casa ogni giorno.
“My aunt cleans the house every day.”

2. Italian Irregular Verbs

More Essential Verbs

Unfortunately, many very important Italian verbs are irregular, and this means that you have to learn their conjugation one by one. But don’t worry, with our help you’ll master them like it was the most natural thing in the world. 

By far, the most important Italian irregular verbs are essere (“to be”) and avere (“to have”), which also work as Italian auxiliary verbs

13. 

Essere
“to be”
Lorenzo è un bravissimo cuoco.
“Lorenzo is a great chef.”

14. 

Avere
“to have”
Luca e Antonia hanno una casa stupenda in Toscana.
“Luca and Antonia have a wonderful house in Tuscany.”

Other important examples of irregular verbs are: 

15. 

Andare
“to go”
In Italia i bambini vanno a scuola dalle 8 alle 13.
“In Italy, children go to school from 8 to 13.”

16. 

Venire
“to come”
Se non è un problema, vengo con voi.
“If it’s not a problem, I’ll come with you.”

17.

Potere
“can,” “may”
Posso raggiungervi più tardi?
“May I join you later?”

18.

Dovere
“to have to”
Devi parlare con tua madre.
“You have to talk to your mother.”
Boats in Burano, Italy

3. Reflexive Verbs in Italian

Reflexive verbs in Italian are very common and can sometimes be hard to understand for students. This is because some of them don’t actually have a real reflexive meaning. In sentences, even those verbs that have an identical subject and object are more like expressions in Italian than actual reflexive verbs as they’re thought of in English.

An example is the verb svegliarsi, which literally means “to wake yourself up.” But it really just means “to wake up.”

Some of the most important reflexive verbs are:

19.

Divertirsi
“to have fun”
Mi sono divertito molto questa sera.
“I really had fun tonight.”

20.

Lavarsi
“to wash up”
Ti sei lavato i denti?
“Did you brush your teeth?” (literally, “Did you wash your teeth?”)

21.

Alzarsi
“to stand up”
Quando l’insegnante entra in classe, dovete alzarvi.
“When the teacher comes in the classroom, you have to stand up.”

22.

Addormentarsi
“to fall asleep”
Ieri mi sono addormentata sul divano.
“Yesterday, I fell asleep on the couch.”

4. Italian Verb Types & Their Meanings

Negative Verbs

Following are a few lists of the best Italian verbs to know as a beginner in the language. Beginning with Italian action verbs, we’ll go through a variety of verb types that we’ve categorized for your convenience. Let’s get started! 

Italian Action Verbs

23.

Arrivare
“to arrive”
I miei cugini sono arrivati ieri sera.
“My cousins arrived yesterday evening.”

24.

Stare
“to stay”
A Parigi starò a casa di un’amica.
“In Paris, I’ll stay at a friend’s house.”

25.

Fermarsi
“to stop”
Fermati qui, c’è un buon ristorante.
“Stop here, there’s a good restaurant.”

26.

Camminare
“to walk”
Amo camminare sulla spiaggia.
“I love walking on the beach.”

27.

Cercare
“to search,” “to look for”
Scusi, cerco un bancomat. Sa dove posso trovarlo?
“Excuse me, I’m looking for an ATM. Do you know where I can find it?”

28.

Trovare
“to find”
Ho trovato un buon amico.
“I’ve found a good friend.”

29.

Spostare
“to move”
Per favore, aiutami a spostare il tavolo.
“Please, help me to move the table.”

30.

Tirare
“to pull”
Tira per aprire.
“Pull to open.”

31.

Spingere
“to push”
Sto scendendo, non serve spingere!
“I’m getting off, there’s no need to push!”

32.

Correre
“to run”
Mia sorella corre ogni mattina per 10 chilometri.
“My sister runs for ten kilometers every morning.”

33.

Viaggiare
“to travel”
Viaggio almeno due volte all’anno.
“I travel at least twice a year.”

34.

Rimanere
“to remain,” “to stay”
Vorrei rimanere di più, ma non posso.
“I’d like to stay longer, but I can’t.”

35.

Tenere
“to keep,” “to hold”
Tienimi la mano.
“Hold my hand.”

36.

Trasportare
“to transport,” “to carry”
Questo camion trasporta frutta.
“This truck transports fruit.”
Couple on Vespa

Mental Verbs

37.

Volere
“to want”
Sono stanca, voglio andare a dormire.
“I’m tired, I want to go to bed.”

38.

Sapere
“to know”
So chi è stato.
“I know who did it.”

39.

Credere
“to believe”
Credo che tu abbia ragione.
“I believe you’re right.”

40.

Sperare
“to hope”
Spero che l’esame vada bene.
“I hope the test will go well.”

41.

Piacere
“to like”
Il caffè italiano mi piace molto.
“I like Italian coffee very much.”

42.

Dispiacere
“to be sorry”
Mi dispiace che tu non ti sia divertito.
“I’m sorry that you didn’t have fun.”

43.

Ricordare
“to remember,” “to remind”
Questa canzone mi ricorda la mia infanzia.
“This song reminds me of my childhood.”

44.

Dimenticare
“to forget”
Ho dimenticato le chiavi.
“I forgot the keys.”

45.

Imparare
“to learn”
Sto imparando l’italiano.
“I’m learning Italian.”

46.

Sognare
“to dream”
Sogno di visitare Venezia.
“I dream of visiting Venice.”

47.

Desiderare
“to wish”
Desidero rivederti.
“I wish to see you again.”

48.

Odiare
“to hate”
Mia figlia odia il cavolfiore.
“My daughter hates cauliflower.”

Verbs of Change

The world is full of change and nothing is to be taken for granted. Here are some useful Italian verbs to learn to talk about change!

49.

Cambiare
“to change”
Il paesaggio è davvero cambiato.
“The landscape has really changed.”

50.

Diventare
“to become”
Crescendo, sono diventata più indipendente.
“Growing up, I’ve become more independent.”

51.

Migliorare
“to improve”
Il mio italiano è migliorato nell’ultimo anno.
“My Italian has improved over the last year.”

52.

Peggiorare
“to worsen”
Il tempo è peggiorato rapidamente.
“The weather has quickly worsened.”

53.

Aumentare
“to increase”
Il mio stipendio è aumentato di 100 euro.
“My salary has increased by 100 euro.”

54.

Diminuire
“to decrease,” “to reduce”
Bisogna diminuire le spese.
“We have to reduce our expenses.”
Rome

Verbs for the Workplace

Here are some Italian verbs you must know to talk about work and different types of jobs.

55.

Lavorare
“to work”
Matteo lavora 10 ore al giorno.
“Matteo works ten hours a day.”

56.

Fare
“to make,” “to do”
Faccio spesso degli errori di ortografia.
“I often make spelling mistakes.”

57.

Finire
“to end,” “to finish”
Ho finito il nuovo libro di Elena Ferrante.
“I’ve finished Elena Ferrante’s new novel.”

58.

Iniziare
“to start,” “to begin”
Hai iniziato a fare i compiti?
“Did you start doing your homework?”

59.

Costruire
“to build”
Mio nonno ha costruito questa casa.
“My grandfather built this house.”

60.

Creare
“to create”
Leonardo ha creato un capolavoro.
“Leonardo created a masterpiece.”

61.

Cucinare
“to cook”
Mio padre ha cucinato la pasta.
“My father cooked pasta.”

62.

Mescolare
“to mix”
Mescola il latte con le uova.
“Mix the milk with the eggs.”

63.

Tagliare
“to cut”
Per favore, taglia il pane.
“Please, cut the bread.”

64.

Servire
“to serve”
Servire a temperatura ambiente.
“Serve at room temperature.”

65.

Guidare
“to drive”
Non mi piace guidare molte ore.
“I don’t like to drive for many hours.”

66.

Usare
“to use”
Posso usare la tua auto?
“Could I use your car?”

67.

Scrivere
“to write”
Gli scriverò una lettera.
“I’ll write him a letter.”

68.

Telefonare
“to phone”
Domani telefonerò all’ufficio.
“Tomorrow, I’ll phone the office.”

69.

Chiamare
“to call”
Andrea ti chiamerà più tardi.
“Andrea will call you later.”

70.

Chiedere
“to ask,” “to request”
Marco ha chiesto a Valentina di sposarlo.
“Marco asked Valentina to marry him.”

71.

Rispondere
“to answer”
Ti prego di rispondere al più presto.
“Please, answer as soon as possible.”

72.

Firmare
“to sign”
Ho appena firmato il contratto.
“I’ve just signed the contract.”

Sensory Verbs

73.

Guardare
“to watch”
Sto guardando la tv.
“I’m watching TV.”

74.

Vedere
“to see”
È così buio che non vedo nulla.
“It’s so dark that I can’t see anything.”

75.

Ascoltare
“to listen”
Roberto ascolta solo la musica metal.
“Roberto only listens to metal music.”

76.

Assaggiare
“to taste”
Voglio assaggiare questo vino.
“I want to taste this wine.”

77.

Profumare
“to smell”
La tua macchina profuma di sapone.
“Your car smells like soap.”

78.

Toccare
“to touch”
Tocca questo tessuto: è morbidissimo.
“Touch this fabric; it’s really soft.”

9- Other Italian Verbs for Beginners

79.

Parlare
“to talk,” “to speak”
Io e mia sorella parliamo ogni giorno al telefono.
“My sister and I talk everyday on the phone.”

80.

Dipingere
“to paint”
Michelangelo ha dipinto la Cappella Sistina.
“Michelangelo painted the Cappella Sistina.”

81.

Suonare
“to play (an instrument)”
Maria sa suonare il piano.
“Maria can play the piano.”

82.

Recitare
“to play (like an actor)”
Al Pacino ha recitato ne Il Padrino.
“Al Pacino played in The Godfather.”

83.

Mangiare
“to eat”
Di solito a pranzo mangio un panino.
“I usually eat a sandwich for lunch.”

84.

Bere
“to drink”
Ti andrebbe di bere qualcosa con me?
“Would you like to drink something with me?”

85.

Dormire
“to sleep”
La domenica dormo sempre fino a tardi.
“On Sundays, I always sleep until late.”

86.

Riposare
“to rest”
In vacanza non ho riposato per niente.
“On holiday, I couldn’t rest for a moment.”

87.

Vestirsi
“to get dressed”
Vestiti, dobbiamo uscire.
“Get dressed, we have to go out.”

88.

Nuotare
“to swim”
Non so nuotare.
“I can’t swim.”

89.

Sdraiarsi
“to lie”
Mi sono sdraiato per terra.
“I lay down on the ground.”

90.

Salire
“to get on,” “to get up”
Sono salito sull’ultimo autobus.
“I got on the last bus.”

91.

Scendere
“to get off”
Scusi, devo scendere alla prossima fermata.
“Excuse me, I have to get off at the next stop.”

92.

Sollevare
“to lift”
Questa macchina solleva fino a una tonnellata di peso.
“This machine lifts up to one ton of weight.”

93.

Passare
“to pass”
Passami il sale, per favore.
“Pass me the salt, please.”

94.

Inventare
“to invent”
Marconi ha inventato la radio.
“Marconi invented the radio.”

95.

Comprare
“To buy”
Hai comprato il latte?
“Did you buy the milk?”

96.

Vendere
“to sell”
Il negozio all’angolo vende borse e scarpe.
“The shop at the corner sells bags and shoes.”

97.

Pagare
“to pay”
Ho pagato 10 € per una pizza a una birra.
“I paid 10 € for a pizza and a beer.”

98.

Vincere
“to win”
La Ferrari ha vinto l’ultimo Gran Premio.
“The Ferrari won the latest Grand Prix.”

99.

Perdere
“to lose”
Ho perso il cellulare.
“I’ve lost my mobile phone.”

100.

Nascere
“to be born”
Sono nato in Francia, ma sono cresciuto in Belgio.
“I was born in France, but I grew up in Belgium.”

101.

Morire
“to die”
Nell’incidente per fortuna non è morto nessuno.
“Luckily, nobody died in the accident.”

5. Italian Verb Placement in a Sentence

As you can see from the many sentences above, in Italian, a verb usually goes after the subject and before the object (or any other complement). 

Example: 

Subject + Verb + Object

Il topo mangia il formaggio.

“The mouse eats the cheese.”

6. ItalianPod101: A Great Source for Your Italian Learning!

We hope you enjoyed learning about Italian verbs with us, and that you picked up a few new vocabulary words you can start using today! It will take lots of studying and practice, but you can memorize every word on this list over time. And once you do, why not start on another Italian basic verbs list on ItalianPod101? 

Have you already checked out our majestic 100 adjectives article, our amazing 100 nouns list, or our guide on Italian pronouns? If not, it’s time to do it! Improve your Italian with our wonderful guides and lessons, whenever and wherever you want. Download our mobile apps or follow our courses on your PC, and you’ll live the Dolce vita

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Italian verbs you still want to know! We look forward to hearing from you, and will do our best to help! 

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Italian Pronouns: Definition, List, and Examples of Use

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Pronouns are one of the fundamental bricks in the majestic building of grammar. Basically, what they do is replace another word, allowing us to avoid repetition and making every language more agile, pleasant, and poetic. Italian pronouns are no exception. 

A pronoun in Italian can replace: 

There are many kinds of Italian pronouns, categorized by their function in a sentence. In this Italian pronouns lesson here on ItalianPod101.com, we’ll show you a list of all the most important ones, with their definitions and examples of Italian pronoun usage. It’s Italian pronouns, made easy!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Italian Table of Contents
  1. Italian personal pronouns
  2. Italian possessive pronouns
  3. Italian reflexive pronouns
  4. Italian demonstrative pronouns
  5. Italian interrogative and exclamatory pronouns
  6. Italian indefinite pronouns
  7. Italian relative pronouns
  8. ItalianPod101: Fast & Fun Italian for All

1- Italian personal pronouns

Introducing Yourself

A personal pronoun is a word that indicates who or what is involved in a sentence, without having to repeat it in full. Let’s clarify with an example in English: “My daughter is on holiday. She’s very happy.” Without pronouns, we would say: “My daughter is on holiday. My daughter is very happy.” A bit annoying, isn’t it?

Now, there are two categories of Italian personal pronouns:

  • Subject pronouns: When the replaced element is the subject of the sentence.
  • Object pronouns: When the replaced element is the object of the sentence. 

Further, there are two kinds of object pronouns.

  • Direct object pronouns: When the pronoun replaces a direct object, answering the question “Who?” or “What?”
  • Indirect object pronouns: When the pronoun replaces an indirect object, answering the question “To whom?” or “To what?”

Now, let’s see them in action in this nice and neat Italian pronouns table. 

Italian subject pronounsItalian direct object pronounsItalian indirect object pronouns
1st person singularIo (“I”)Mi (“Me”)Mi (“To me”)
2nd person singularTu (“You”)Ti (“You”)Ti (“To you”)
3rd person singularInformal: Lui, Lei (“He, She”).

Formal: Egli, Ella, Esso, Essa (“He, She, It male, It female”) *
Lo (“Him, It male”), La (“Her, It female”), L’ (“Him, Her, It” whenever the following word begins with a vowel)Gli (“To him, her, it”)
1st person pluralNoi (“We”)Ci (“Us”)Ci (“To us”)
2nd person pluralVoi (“You”)Vi (“You”)Vi (“To you”)
3rd person pluralInformal: Loro (“They”).

Formal: Essi, Esse (“They,” male and female) *
Li, Le (“Them,” male and female)Gli, Loro (“To them”)
*Used in written, formal language, like in literature or official documents.

And now, let’s dive into these Italian pronouns with examples!

Italian subject pronouns:

  • Io
    • Io vado al cinema, vuoi venire?

“I’m going to the cinema, do you want to come?”

  • Tu
    • Tu puoi andare ora.

“You can go now.”

  • Lui 
    • Lui aveva fame ed è tornato a casa.

“He was hungry and has gone home.”

  • Lei
    • Lei, Marta, è davvero una persona interessante.

“She, Marta, really is an interesting person.”

  • Noi
    • Noi andremo in vacanza fra una settimana.

“We’ll go on holiday in one week.”

“Did you watch the match yesterday?”

  • Loro
    • Loro non sono qui perché non sono stati invitati.

“They are not here because they were not invited.”

Direct object pronouns:

  • Mi
    • Ieri Marco mi ha visto ma non mi ha salutato.

“Yesterday, Marco saw me but he didn’t say hello to me.”

“I’ll call you tomorrow to confirm the deal.”

  • Lo
    • Cerco Giuliano, lo hai visto?
    • “I’m looking for Giuliano, have you seen him?”
  • La
    • Ti piace la pasta? Io la adoro.

“Do you like pasta? I love it.”

  • L’
    • Il Barolo è buonissimo, l’ho assaggiato in Piemonte. 

Barolo is very good, I’ve tasted it in Piedmont.”

  • Ci
    • Lorenzo ci ha invitati al suo matrimonio.

“Lorenzo has invited us to his wedding.”

  • Vi
    • Martedì vi porto a cena in un ristorante buonissimo.

“Tuesday, I’ll bring you to dinner in a very good restaurant.”

  • Li
    • Li ho incontrati stamattina al supermercato.

“I bumped into them this morning at the supermarket.”

  • Le
    • A: Hai tu le mie scarpe bianche? 

B: No, non le ho io.

A: “Do you have my white shoes?” 

B: “No, I don’t have them.”

Indirect object pronouns:

  • Mi
    • Ieri Andrea mi ha dato una bellissima lettera.

“Yesterday, Andrea gave me a beautiful letter.”

  • Ti
    • Ho bisogno di parlarti.

“I need to talk to you.”

  • Gli 
    • Gli ho consigliato di accettare il lavoro.

“I’ve suggested to him to accept the job.”

  • Ci
    • Roma ci piace così tanto che abbiamo deciso di vivere lì.

“We like Rome so much that we’ve decided to live there.”

  • Vi
    • Più tardi vi mando un’e-mail con i dettagli. 

“Later, I’ll send you an email with the details.”

  • Gli / Loro
    • Gli ho detto che devono partire entro domani. / Ho detto loro che devono partire entro domani.

“I’ve told them that they must leave by tomorrow.”

Two important notes: 

  • Unlike in other languages, in Italian, the use of the subject pronoun in a sentence isn’t mandatory. In fact, the subject pronoun is usually omitted, except when it’s needed to avoid ambiguity. 
  • Sono andato a letto presto, perché ero stanco.

“(I) went to bed early, because (I) was tired.”

  • In some cases, when you use an infinitive verb, you can add the object pronouns at the end of the sentence, attaching it to the infinitive verb.
  • Vieni a trovarci questa estate?

“Are you coming to visit us this summer?”

Italian Indirect Object Pronouns

2- Italian possessive pronouns

Italian possessive pronouns are identical to possessive adjectives. They replace the possessed object and must always be preceded by a definite article or a preposition + definite article. They’re conjugated according to gender and number. 

They are:

  • Mio / mia / miei / mie
    • Adoro il tuo stereo. Il mio è vecchio. 

“I love your stereo. Mine is old.”

  • Tuo / tua / tuoi / tue
    • Le mie nuove scarpe da trekking sono perfette. Come vanno le tue?

“My new trekking shoes are perfect. How are yours going?”

  • Suo / sua / suoi / sue
    • La mia valigia è stata finalmente trovata, ma della sua ancora non si sa nulla. 

“My luggage was finally found, but we still don’t know anything about his.”

  • Nostro / nostra / nostri / nostre
    • Tuo figlio adora il basket, mentre i nostri preferiscono il calcio.

“Your son loves basketball, while ours prefers football.”

  • Vostro / vostra / vostri / vostre
    • Il mio cane è un pastore tedesco, e il vostro?

“My dog is a German shepherd, and yours?”

  • Loro 
    • Il mio lavoro mi lascia molto tempo libero, mentre il loro no.

“My job gives me a lot of free time, while theirs does not.”

Italian Pronouns

3- Italian reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject of a sentence is also the object. There are a lot of very common reflexive verbs in Italian, and they can be a bit confusing. Anyway, the Italian reflexive pronouns are:

  • Mi (“Myself”)
    • Mi sto facendo la doccia.

“I’m taking a shower.”

  • Ti (“Yourself”)
    • Ti sei lavato le mani?

“Did you wash your hands?”

  • Si (“Himself, Herself, Themselves”)
    • Si è vestito in fretta ed è uscito.

“He dressed up quickly and got out.”

  • Ci (“Ourself”)
    • Io e Antonio ci amiamo molto.

“Antonio and I love each other very much.”

  • Vi (“Yourself”, plural)
    • Oggi vi siete svegliate molto presto, come mai?

“Today you got up very early, why?”

4- Italian demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are used instead of a noun to point out a specific person or thing. The most common Italian demonstrative pronouns are:

  • Questo / questa / questi / queste (“This, these”)

“This is Luca, my husband.”

  • Quello / quella / quelli / quelle (“That, those”)
    • Quelli che vedete sono i resti di un grande tempio romano.

“Those you see are the remains of a big Roman temple.”

5- Italian interrogative and exclamatory pronouns

Basic Questions

Interrogative and exclamatory pronouns are used to form questions or exclamations. In Italian, they are:

  • Chi (“Who”)
    • Chi è l’uomo con cui parla Simone?

“Who is the man Simone is talking to?”

  • Che cosa / Cosa / Che (“What”). All of these options are synonyms.
    • Cos’è successo?

“What happened?”

  • Quanto / quanta / quanti / quante (“How much” but also “So much” in exclamations)
    • Quanto mi manchi!

“I miss you so much!”

  • Quale / quali (“Which one”)
    • Tra pizza e pasta, quale preferisci?

“Between pizza and pasta, which one do you prefer?”

Pizza and Pasta

6- Italian indefinite pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are used to indicate something or someone in general. The most common Italian indefinite pronouns are:

  • Alcuno / alcuna / alcuni / alcune (“Some”)
    • A: Ti sono piaciute le opere in mostra? 

B: Alcune mi sono piaciute, ma non tutte.

A: “Did you like the artworks on display?” 

B: “Some I liked, but not all of them.”

  • Molto / molta / molti / molte (“Many, a lot”)
    • A: Hai fame? 

B: Molta!

A: “Are you hungry?” 

B: “A lot!”

  • Poco / poca / pochi / poche (“Few”)

B: No, poca.

A: “Were there many people at the concert?” 

B: “No, not much.”

  • Tanto / tanta / tanti / tante (“Many”)
    • Tanti sono venuti alla manifestazione, nonostante il freddo.

“Many went to the demonstration, despite the cold.”

  • Troppo / troppa / troppi / troppe (“Too much, too many”)
    • Troppi non sono tornati dalla guerra.

“Too many didn’t come back from the war.”

  • Tutto / tutta / tutti / tutte (“All, everyone”)
    • Siamo arrivati tutti in ritardo.

“We’ve all arrived late.”

  • Uno / una (“One”)
    • A: Hai un cellulare? 

B: Ne ho uno, ma è vecchio.

A: “Do you have a mobile phone?” 

B: “I have one, but it’s old.”

  • Qualcuno / qualcuna (“Someone, anyone”)
    • Qualcuno sa dirmi dov’è Dario?

“Could anyone tell me where Dario is?”

  • Ciascuno / ciascuna (“Everyone, each one”)
    • Ciascuno di noi ha un compito.

“Each one of us has a task.”

  • Ognuno / ognuna (“Everyone, each one”)
    • Ognuno deve fare la sua parte.

“Everyone has to do their part.”

  • Nessuno / nessuna (“No one, any”)
    • Nessuno sa perché è successo. 

“No one knows why it happened.”

  • Sono andata a cercare funghi nel bosco, ma non ne ho trovato nessuno. 

“I went looking for mushrooms in the forest, but I didn’t find any.”

Italian Indefinite Pronouns

7- Italian relative pronouns

Relative pronouns connect a sentence with a subordinate clause. The Italian relative pronouns are:

  • Che (replaces a subject or direct object)
    • La donna che sta parlando con Leo è il mio capo. 

“The woman who is talking with Leo is my boss.”

  • Chi (“The person who, the people who, whoever”)
    • Chi è stato?

“Who did it?”

  • Cui (replaces an indirect object)
    • La ragazza di cui ti ho parlato sta entrando nella stanza proprio adesso.

“The girl I told you about is entering the room right now.”

  • Il quale / la quale / i quali / le quali (same as Cui)
    • La persona per la quale lavoro si chiama Mario Rossi.

“The person I work for is called Mario Rossi.”

8. ItalianPod101: Fast & Fun Italian for All

Improve Listening

Mastering Italian pronouns is no easy feat, but with enough practice, you’ll get there! We hope you enjoyed this article and that you’re well on your way to really understanding Italian pronouns.

If there’s anything you didn’t quite understand, don’t hesitate to reach out in the comments. We’ll do our best to help you out! 

Grammar is a complicated universe, but we at ItalianPod101 are here to help! Check out our lesson library and enjoy hours of videos, tons of useful articles, and practical mobile tools to learn and study whenever and wherever you want. 

Happy Italian learning! 

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Wait a Minute… Do You Know How to Tell Time in Italian?

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How often do you need to check the time every day? Telling the time is part of everyday life, so if you’re making plans for a specific time and date while traveling or studying in Italy, it’s essential that you master this conversation skill as soon as possible. 

In this article, I’ll be going over everything from how to say “hour” in Italian to asking for the time and making plans in Italian. Let’s get started.
Che ore sono? è ora di iniziare a divertirsi con ItalianPod101.com! (“What time is it? It’s time to start having fun with ItalianPod101.com!”)

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Time Phrases in Italian Table of Contents
  1. How to Ask for the Time in Italian
  2. Italian Hours
  3. Give Me a Minute…
  4. How to Divide Hours into Minutes in Italian
  5. General Time References of the Day in Italian
  6. Top Italian Time Adverbs
  7. Italian Proverbs and Sayings about Time
  8. Conclusion

1. How to Ask for the Time in Italian

Man Checking Watch

To start, let’s see the very first basic phrases you can use to ask for and say the time in Italian:

  • Che ore sono? / Che ora è? 


These literally translate to “What hours are they?” and “What hour it is?” respectively. They both mean “What time is it?”

This is the easiest way to ask the time in Italian. With this phrase, you don’t have to worry too much about using formal vs. informal speech, as adding scusi (“excuse me” – formal) or scusa (“excuse me” – informal) at the beginning of the sentence can make it more formal or informal.

  • Potrebbe/Potresti dirmi l’ora? 


This translates to “Could you (formal/informal) tell me the time?” 

This is a more complex form of asking for the time in Italian. It can be used both formally and informally as long as you change the person (2nd vs. 3rd) of the subject accordingly.

  • A che ora è…? /A che ora comincia…? 


These translate to “At what time is…” and “At what time starts …?” respectively. This is the Italian formula for asking when something (a meeting, a show, etc.) is going to start.

Did you notice that in Italian we say ore, literally meaning “hours,” when we talk about time? If you look up ora (“hour” in the singular) in an Italian dictionary, you’ll find that it means both “hour” and “now.” While the literal translation of “time” is tempo, in Italian, we use this word just in the sense of the concept of time—never to represent the passing of time on a clock. Interesting, right?

Che ore sono? Uffa*… il tempo non passa mai… (“What time is it? Geez…time never passes…”)

*Uffa is an untranslatable word that makes life so much more interesting! Depending on the context, it can be translated as “geez/gosh!”, “damn” (angry), “come on!” (impatient), “phew” (generic), or “oh, hum” (bored).

2. Italian Hours

When you say the time in Italian, it’s more common to use the twelve-hour clock, unless it’s in written official communication. In order to avoid confusion or ambiguity, you’ll often hear Italians say the time with the twelve-hour clock, adding di mattina, del pomeriggio, di sera, or di notte (“in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, at night”).

Hourglass

Una vecchia clessidra (“An old hourglass”)

There’s no equivalent for “o’clock” in Italian. You simply say the time, and if you want to be very precise, you add in punto. You’ll only use this if you want to remark that it just turned exactly that time: Ci vediamo alle tre in punto! (“We meet at three o’clock (sharp)!”).

To state what time it is, you use the verb essere (“to be”), in the singular è, for midnight (mezzanotte), midday (mezzogiorno), and one o’clock (l’una). The rest of the time, you use the plural sono and the number  equivalent to the hour.
But if you want to say what time something happens, you use a/alle and the time, like this: a mezzanotte (“At midnight”), alle tre (“at three”). Remember that alle = a + le. Do you need to brush up on compound prepositions? Follow me!

È mezzanotte / A mezzanotte “It’s midnight” / “At midnight”
È l’una (di notte) / All’una (di notte) “It’s one AM” / “At one AM”
Sono le due (di notte) / Allle due (di notte) “It’s two AM” / “At two AM”
Sono le tre (di notte) / Alle tre (di notte) “It’s three AM” / “At three AM”
Sono le quattro (di notte) / Alle quattro (di notte) “It’s four AM” / “At four AM”
Sono le cinque (di mattina) / Alle cinque (di mattina) “It’s five AM” / “At five AM”
Sono le sei (di mattina) / Alle sei (di mattina) “It’s six AM” / “At six AM”
Sono le sette (di mattina) / Alle sette (di mattina) “It’s seven AM” / “At seven AM”
Sono le otto (di mattina) / Alle otto (di mattina) “It’s eight AM” / “At eight AM”
Sono le nove (di mattina) / Alle nove (di mattina) “It’s nine AM” / “At nine AM”
Sono le dieci (di mattina) / Alle dieci (di mattina) “It’s ten AM” / “At ten AM”`
Sono le undici (di mattina) / Alle undici (di mattina) “It’s eleven AM” / “At eleven AM”
È mezzogiorno / A mezzogiorno “It’s noon” / “At noon”
È l’una / All’una “It’s one PM” / “At one PM”
Sono le due (di pomeriggio) / Alle due (di pomeriggio) “It’s two PM” / “At two PM”
Sono le tre (di pomeriggio) / Alle tre (di pomeriggio) “It’s three PM” / “At three PM”
Sono le quattro (di pomeriggio) / Alle quattro (di pomeriggio) “It’s four PM” / “At four PM”
Sono le cinque (di pomeriggio) / Alle cinque (di pomeriggio) “It’s five PM” / “At five PM”
Sono le sei (di pomeriggio) / Alle sei (di pomeriggio) “It’s six PM” / “At six PM”
Sono le sette (di sera) / Alle sette (di sera) “It’s seven PM” / “At seven PM”
Sono le otto (di sera) / Alle otto (di sera) “It’s eight PM” / “At eight PM”
Sono le nove (di sera) / Alle nove (di sera) “It’s nine PM” / “At nine PM”
Sono le dieci (di sera) / Alle dieci (di sera) “It’s ten PM” / “At ten PM”
Sono le undici (di sera) / Alle undici (di sera) “It’s eleven PM” / “At eleven PM”

Naturally, it’s another matter to know how to write the time in Italian…. Here’s a hint: right now, it’s 11:33.

Impatient Boy at Table Holding Cutlery

È ora di pranzo! (“It’s lunchtime!”)

You’ll often find Italians referring to noon or one PM as l’ora di pranzo, meaning “lunchtime.” When it’s time to eat, it’s a sacred time for Italians. So, just a word of advice: avoid planning a meeting around that time unless you’re making plans for a lunch or dinner. Also, remember that the typical time for meals changes according to the region in Italy. Generally, people in the north have lunch around noon, while the more south you go, the later lunchtime (or dinnertime) is, especially in the summer. 

3. Give Me a Minute…

Time

A minute isn’t much, but we use the word all the time, both as a reference to sixty seconds and a more generic “little time.”

Kids will always tell you un minuto… cinque minuti… (“one minute… five minutes… “) when you ask them to get out of bed or clean their room, don’t they?

  • Sono le otto, alzati! “It’s eight o’clock, get up!”
  • Ho sonno… ancora cinque minuti… “I’m sleepy…five more minutes….”

It’s also the typical excuse for the chronic latecomer…

  • Ciao, sei pronto? “Hello, are you ready?”
  • Ehm…. Quasi… cinque minuti e arrivo… “Ehm…almost…five minutes and I’ll be there…”

Here are a few more useful formulas. Notice how the verb is in the imperative mood. You can practice with these phrases:

Dammi un minuto… “Give me a minute…”

Aspetta un minuto… “Wait a minute…”

The same formulas can be used with secondo, meaning “second.”

But in fact, apart from when we talk about cinque minuti or dieci minuti (“five minutes” or “ten minutes”), we rarely use the word “minute” in a sentence. See how it works in the case of 6:05 PM:

  • Che ore sono? (“What time is it?”)
  • Sono le sei e cinque. (“It’s five past six.”) 

We’ll look at this more in the following chapter.

Clock Spiral

Ore e minuti (“Hours and minutes”)

4. How to Divide Hours into Minutes in Italian

When the digital watches came around, a lot of people started telling time like robots:

  • Che ore sono? (“What time is it?”)
  • Sono le 17 e 27. (“It’s 17: 27.”)

But luckily, people soon realized it was too ugly and stopped doing that. The normal behavior now is to round up the minutes to halves, quarters, and fives. Much better!

  • mezz’ora (“half an hour”) 

Notice how in front of ora, the word mezza drops the last letter, a, and adds an apostrophe (‘), becoming mezz’ora. But whenever you need to put it after the hour, to mean “half past…” then you use the complete word, either mezzo or mezza.

  • … e mezza/mezzo  (“half past…”)

In this case, telling time in Italian is much simpler than in English. You just need to put together the hour and the half hour with the conjunction e. Notice how both mezzo and mezza are correct.

  • un quarto d’ora (“a quarter of an hour”)

Notice how here, too, we drop a letter and add an apostrophe, so that un quarto di ora becomes much nicer to hear and pronounce: un quarto d’ora.

  • e un quarto (“a quarter past …”)

To add just a quarter of an hour, you also need to put the conjunction e + un (indefinite article).

  • Just like in English, an easy way to tell time is by fractions of five minutes, as in:
  • le … e cinque (“five past …” or “… oh five”)
  • le … e dieci (“ten past …” or “… ten”)
  • le … e quindici (“fifteen past …” or “… fifteen”)

le … e venti (“twenty past …” or “… twenty”)

  • le … e venticinque (“twenty-five past …” or “… twenty-five”)
  • le … e trenta (“thirty past …” or “… thirty”)
  • le … e trentacinque (“thirty-five past …” or “… thirty-five”)
  • le … e quaranta (“forty past …” or “… forty”)
  • le … e quarantacinque (“forty-five past …” or “… forty-five”)
  • le … e cinquanta (“fifty past …” or “… fifty”)
  • le … e cinquantacinque (“fifty-five past …” or “… fifty-five”)
  • meno… 

After half past thirty-five, normally in Italian you start saying the following hour “minus” the minutes needed to get to the top of the hour. For example: 

  • 10:40 = le undici meno venti (literally “eleven minus twenty”)  
  • 11:45 = le dodici/mezzogiorno meno un quarto (“twelve/noon minus a quarter”)
  • 15:50 = le quattro meno dieci (“four minus ten”)
  • 19:55 = le otto meno cinque  (“eight minus five”)

5. General Time References of the Day in Italian

Telling the exact time, or being able to read a clock, is important. But since prehistoric times, people have talked about time by referring to the different stages of the day. So, if you want to have a more natural Italian conversation, here are the most common ways to give the general time of day in Italian.

Let’s remember that AM / PM isn’t commonly used in Italian. Instead, to avoid ambiguity or confusion, you’ll hear people mention di mattina, del pomeriggio, di sera, and di notte (“in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, at night”) after the time. These are the four basic stages of the day, but below is a more complete list of phrases using all the different parts of the day.

Sun Low Over the Horizon

Dall’alba al tramonto (“from dawn to dusk”)

Sono uscita di mattina presto.“I left early in the morning.
Faccio colazione a metà mattinata.“I have breakfast mid-morning.”
Mi sveglio sempre all’alba.“I always wake up at dawn.”
Ci vediamo a mezzogiorno (ad ora di pranzo).“See you at noon (at lunchtime).”
Ti chiamo nel primo pomeriggio.“I’ll call you in the early afternoon.”
La festa comincia nel tardo pomeriggio.“The party starts in the late afternoon.”
Com’è bella la montagna al tramonto!“How beautiful the mountain is at sunset!
Non esco mai di sera tardi.“I never go out late at night.”
È ora di cena.“It’s dinner time.”
Non si può fare rumore a notte fonda.“No noise can be made in the middle of the night.
Ho sentito un rumore nel cuore della notte.“I heard a noise in the dead of night.
È tardi: ora di dormire!“It’s late: time for bed (nap time)!”

6. Top Italian Time Adverbs

Improve Listening

Once you’ve mastered how to say the time, how to talk about all the stages of the day and night, you still need some other little words that help you indicate when something happens. When talking about time in Italian, these adverbs of time will be immensely helpful:

  • adesso/ora (“now”)


Il treno parte ora. (“The train leaves now.”)

  • al momento (“at the moment”)


Al momento non abbiamo tavoli liberi. (“At the moment, we don’t have free tables.”)

  • nel frattempo (“in the meantime”)


Nel frattempo preparo il pranzo. (“In the meantime, I’ll prepare lunch.”)

  • prima/dopo (“before/after”)


Ci vediamo prima di cena o dopo cena? (“Shall we meet before dinner or after dinner?”)

  • presto/tardi (“early/late”)


Per favore, arriva presto. Non fare tardi come al solito. (“Please, be there early. Don’t you be late as usual.”)

  • tra un po’ (“In a while”)

Pay attention to the apostrophe (‘). It’s there to indicate that it was originally a longer word (poco) that dropped the last syllable.


Ora non ho voglia. Lo faccio tra un po’. (“Now I don’t want to. I’ll do it in a while.”)

  • per molto/poco tempo (“for a long/short time”)


Per molto tempo ho creduto a Babbo Natale. (“For a long time, I believed in Santa Claus.”)

  • sempre/mai (“always/never”)
  • Vai sempre in palestra? (“Do you always go to the gym?”)
  • No, non ci vado mai. (“No, I never go.”)
  • il prima possibile (“as soon as possible”)


Ho bisogno della relazione il prima possibile. (“I need the report as soon as possible.”)

  • in qualsiasi momento (“at any time”)


Può succedere in qualsiasi momento. (“It can happen at any time.”)

  • di tanto in tanto (“from time to time”)


È bene fare una pausa di tanto in tanto. (“From time to time, it’s good to take a break.”)

7. Italian Proverbs and Sayings about Time

Time is such a universal and primordial concept that in all cultures, you’ll find many proverbs and sayings about it. Here are some of the most common proverbs and sayings about time in Italian.

Sundial
Il tempo è denaro.“Time is money.”
Il tempo vola.“Time flies.”
Chi ha tempo non aspetti tempo.“Those who have time do not wait for time.”

Meaning: Basically, it’s an invitation to act immediately without hesitation.
La notte porta consiglio.“The night brings counsel.”

Meaning: The best decisions must be made with a clear mind, better if after a long sleep.
Dare tempo al tempo.“Give time to time.”

Meaning: Allow things to fall into place by waiting for the right moment.
Il tempo è galantuomo.“Time is a gentleman.”

Meaning: Time restores the truth, repairs all wrongs, and heals everything. Therefore, we must learn to wait.
Ora di punta.“Rush hour.”

Meaning: This literally means “peak hour” because it refers to a peak in a diagram.
Fare le ore piccole.Literally “to make the small hours.”

Meaning: It means to stay up or out until very late (one, two, or three).
Non vedo l’ora (che succeda…).“I can’t wait (for something to happen).”

8. Conclusion

Basic Questions

I bet time flew while learning to tell time in Italian and more. Now you can practice telling time: make plans with your Italian friends, ask strangers for the time, or find out what time the movie starts.

But most importantly, don’t stop now! Go on and keep learning Italian with fun lessons and tons of podcasts and videos on ItalianPod101.com. We’ll help you improve quickly. 

Before you go, practice telling time in Italian by dropping us a comment with the current time in Italian! We look forward to hearing from you!

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Top 100+ Italian Nouns: Our Guide to Common Italian Nouns

Thumbnail When learning a new language, vocabulary is—almost—everything. That’s because when speaking with a foreigner in his or her language, people don’t usually mind if that person doesn’t talk with perfect grammar, and will understand them anyway.

But if you don’t know an important word, communicating will be a problem.

And nouns are the most important words of all. So, what are the Italian nouns you should learn while studying Italian? Check out our list here on ItalianPod101.

But first, some information on Italian nouns’ gender! Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Italian Table of Contents
  1. Italian Nouns: Masculine and Feminine
  2. The 100 Most Common Italian Nouns
  3. Learn Italian at Your Pace with ItalianPod101


1. Italian Nouns: Masculine and Feminine



Nouns 1 First things first: How many genders are there in Italian?

In the Italian language, nouns are masculine or feminine. There is no neuter gender.

For people and animals, the gender of their noun is determined by their sex. For example:

  • Il maestro / la maestra
    “the male teacher” / “the female teacher”


  • Il cavallo / la cavalla
    “the horse” / “the mare”


However, there are nouns that don’t change in masculine or feminine form. For example:

  • Insegnante
    “Teacher”


  • Autista
    “Driver”


For things, their gender is conventional. For example:

  • Il mare:
    “The sea”
    [Masculine]


  • La luna
    “The moon”
    [Feminine]


  • Il bicchiere
    “The glass”
    [Masculine]


  • La tazza
    “The cup”
    [Feminine]


In general (but there are exceptions), these types of nouns in Italian are masculine:



In Italian, feminine nouns tend to be in these categories (again, there are exceptions):

  • Fruit
  • Disciplines (such as philosophy, science, math…)
  • Continents, states, regions, cities, and islands


There are masculine and feminine nouns in Italian in many other categories. For example:

  • Plants
  • Vegetables
  • Sports
  • Body parts


Now, let’s explore the most important Italian nouns and articles you should know.

Most Common Italian Nouns

2. The 100 Most Common Italian Nouns

Nouns 2 Here are the 100+ most common Italian nouns you should learn when you start studying Italian.

1- The Most Common Italian Nouns for Appliances



Check out these Italian nouns for appliances, with their translation and an example of use:

  • Televisione — “Television” [f.]
    • La mia televisione è rotta.
      “My television is broken.”


  • Frigorifero — “Fridge” [m.]
    • Se hai fame, c’è della pasta nel frigorifero.
      “If you’re hungry, there’s pasta in the fridge.”


  • Condizionatore — “Air conditioner” [m.]
    • Ho caldo, accendiamo il condizionatore?
      “It’s hot, can we turn on the air conditioner?”


  • Lavatrice — “Washing machine” [f.]
    • Non dovresti lavare questo vestito in lavatrice.
      “You shouldn’t wash this dress in the washing machine.”


  • Microonde — “Microwave” [m.]
    • La cena è nel microonde.
      “Dinner is in the microwave.”


  • Phon — “Hairdryer” [m.]
    • D’estate non uso mai il phon.
      “I never use the hairdryer in the summer.”


  • Ventilatore — “Fan” [m.]
    • Stanotte era così caldo che ho dormito con il ventilatore acceso.
      “Tonight it was so hot that I slept with the fan on.”


  • Caldaia — “Boiler” [f.]
    • Abbiamo appena cambiato la caldaia.
      “We’ve just changed the boiler.”


  • Lavastoviglie — “Dishwasher” [f.]
    • Non potrei vivere senza lavastoviglie.
      “I couldn’t live without a dishwasher.”


  • Forno — “Oven” [m.]
    • La pizza è nel forno.
      “The pizza is in the oven.”


2- The Most Common Italian Nouns for Technology



Some very common Italian nouns for tech are:

  • Computer — “PC” [m.]
    • Ho comprato un nuovo computer.
      “I’ve bought a new PC.”


  • Computer portatile — “Laptop” [m.]
    • Questo computer portatile è molto leggero.
      “This laptop is very light.”


  • Cellulare — “Mobile phone” [m.]
    • Marco passa troppo tempo sul cellulare.
      “Marco spends too much time on his mobile phone.”


  • Cuffie — “Headphones” [f.]
    • Ho dimenticato le cuffie in palestra.
      “I forgot my headphones at the gym.”


  • Caricabatterie — “Charger” [m.]
    • Mio figlio ha perso il caricabatterie.
      “My son lost his charger.”


  • Connessione — “Connection” [f.]
    • La connessione qui è lenta.
      “The connection here is slow.”


  • Tastiera — “Keyboard” [f.]
    • Non so scrivere con la tastiera QWERTY.
      “I can’t write with a QWERTY keyboard.”


  • Schermo — “Screen” [m.]
    • Lo schermo è ad alta risoluzione.
      “It’s a high-resolution screen.”


  • Tasto — “Button”; “Key” [m.]
    • Se sei pronto a procedere, premi il tasto di controllo.
      “If you’re ready to proceed, please press the control key.”


Common Italian Nouns

3- The Most Common Italian Nouns for Transportation



Nouns 3 Here are some essential Italian nouns about transportation:

  • Aereo — “Plane” [m.]
    • L’aereo partirà da Milano Malpensa.
      “The plane will depart from Milano Malpensa.”


  • Autobus — “Bus” [m.]
    • È questo l’autobus per il Colosseo?
      “Is this the bus to the Colosseum?”


  • Auto — “Car” [f.]
    • Non amo viaggiare in auto.
      “I don’t like traveling by car.”


  • Treno — “Train” [m.]
    • Il nostro treno è in ritardo.
      “Our train is late.”


  • Stazione — “Train station” [f.]
    • Per la stazione, gira a destra.
      “At the train station, turn right.”


  • Aeroporto — “Airport” [m.]
    • Questo aeroporto è enorme.
      “This airport is huge.”


  • Fermata — “Stop” [f.]
    • Devi scendere alla prossima fermata.
      “You have to get off the bus at the next stop.”


  • Biglietto — “Ticket” [m.]
    • Il biglietto costa un euro.
      “The ticket is one euro.”


  • Incrocio — “Intersection” [m.]
    • Al prossimo incrocio, gira a sinistra.
      “At the next intersection, turn left.”


  • Semaforo — “Traffic light” [m.]
    • Fermati! Il semaforo è rosso.
      “Stop! The traffic light is red.”


4- Common Italian Nouns at the Restaurant



Now, here are some of the most basic Italian nouns you should remember at the restaurant:

  • Tavolo — “Table” [m.]
    • Vorremmo un tavolo vicino alla finestra, per favore.
      “We’d like a table next to the window, please.”


  • Forchetta — “Fork” [f.]
    • Potrei avere un’altra forchetta?
      “Could I have another fork?”


  • Coltello — “Knife” [m.]
    • Questo coltello è molto affilato.
      “This knife is very sharp.”


  • Cucchiaio — “Spoon” [m.]
    • Mi dai un cucchiaio, per favore?
      “Can you give me a spoon, please?”


  • Conto — “Bill” [m.]
    • Vorrei il conto, per favore.
      “I’d like the bill, please.”


  • Acqua — “Water” [f.]
    • Bevo solo acqua perché devo guidare.
      “I only drink water, because I have to drive.”


  • Birra — “Beer” [f.]
    • Qual è la migliore birra italiana?
      “Which is the best Italian beer?”


  • Vino — “Wine” [m.]
    • Qual è il tuo vino preferito?
      “Which is your favorite wine?”


  • Verdure — “Vegetables” [f.]
    • Vorrei un contorno di verdure.
      “I’d like some vegetables on the side.”


  • Piatto — “Plate”; “Dish” [m.]
    • Ho mangiato un enorme piatto di pasta.
      “I had a huge dish of pasta.”


  • Cameriere/a — “Waiter” [m. and f.]
    • Il cameriere è stato molto gentile.
      “The waiter was very kind.”


  • Cuoco/a — “Cook” [m. and f.]
    • Mi sarebbe piaciuto fare il cuoco.
      “I would have loved to be a cook.”


Restaurant Nouns in Italian

5- Italian School and Education Nouns



Here are some great Italian nouns to learn if you plan on schooling in Italy, or know someone who does!

  • Scuola — “School” [f.]
    • Sono andata a scuola in Inghilterra.
      “I went to school in England.”


  • Scuola elementare — “Elementary school” [f.]
    • Quella è la scuola elementare di mia figlia.
      “That is my daughter’s elementary school.”


  • Scuola media — “Secondary (middle) school” [f.]
    • La scuola media è un periodo importante per i ragazzi.
      “Secondary school is an important period for kids.”


  • Scuola superiore — “High school” [f.]
    • La mia scuola superiore era in un’altra città.
      “My high school was in another town.”


  • Liceo — This is a high school that prepares students for university, as opposed to a professional high school, preparing them for work. [m.]
    • Al liceo non ero bravo in matematica.
      “I wasn’t good at math in high school.”


  • Università — “University” [f.]
    • Ho conosciuto mia moglie all’università.
      “I met my wife at university.”


  • Insegnante — “Teacher” [m. and f.]
    • L’insegnante di inglese di Lucia è bravissima.
      “Lucia’s English teacher is very good.”


  • Studente — “Student” [m. and f.]
    • Sono molto orgoglioso dei miei studenti.
      “I’m really proud of my students.”


  • Classe — “Class” [f.]
    • Nella mia classe ci sono più ragazze che ragazzi.
      “In my class there are more girls than boys.”


  • Laurea — “Degree” [f.]
    • Ho una laurea in ingegneria meccanica ottenuta all’Università di Bologna.
      “I have a degree in mechanical engineering obtained at the University of Bologna.”


  • Diploma — “Diploma” [m.]
    • Ho preso il diploma nel 1994.
      “I got my diploma in 1994.”


6- Italian Nouns for Jobs and Occupations



Here’s an Italian nouns list for jobs and occupations, so you can better talk about your work!

  • Medico — “Doctor” [m. and f.]
    • C’è un medico?
      “Is there a doctor?”


  • Avvocato/a — “Lawyer” [m. and f.]
    • Mia figlia è un’avvocata molto brava.
      “My daughter is a very skilled lawyer.”


  • Infermiere/a — “Nurse” [m. and f.]
    • L’infermiere è di turno stamattina.
      “The nurse is on duty this morning.”


  • Capo/a — “Boss” [m. and f.]
    • Il capo è cattivo e arrogante.
      “The boss is mean and arrogant.”


  • Imprenditore / Imprenditrice — “Businessman” / “Businesswoman”
    • Mio zio è un ricco imprenditore.
      “My uncle is a wealthy businessman.”


  • Poliziotto/a — “Policeman” / “Policewoman”
    • Da bambino volevo fare il poliziotto.
      “When I was a child, I wanted to be a policeman.”


  • Vigile del fuoco — “Fireman” / “Firewoman”
    • I vigili del fuoco sono molto coraggiosi.
      “Firemen are very brave.”


  • Ingegnere — “Engineer” [m. and f.]
    • Gli ingegneri lavorano molto.
      “Engineers do a lot of work.”


  • Impiegato/a — “Clerk” [m. and f.]
    • Questa impiegata non lavora mai.
      “This clerk never works.”


  • Commesso/a — “Shop assistant” [m. and f.]
    • I commessi lavorano spesso di domenica.
      “Salesmen often work on Sundays.”


  • Professore / Professoressa — “Professor” [m. and f.]
    • Mio padre è professore di letteratura italiana.
      “My father is an Italian literature professor.”


Occupations Nouns in Italian

7- Common Italian Nouns for Family Members



Now for some examples of Italian nouns you’ll need to talk about your family:

  • Famiglia — “Family” [f.]
    • La famiglia è tutto per me.
      “Family is everything for me.”


  • Madre — “Mother” [f.]
    • Mia madre lavora come insegnante.
      “My mother works as a teacher.”


  • Padre — “Father” [m.]
    • Tuo padre è davvero simpatico.
      “Your father is really nice.”


  • Genitori — “Parents” [m.]
    • I miei genitori vivono a Roma.
      “My parents live in Rome.”


  • Marito — “Husband” [m.]
    • Sto aspettando mio marito.
      “I’m waiting for my husband.”


  • Moglie — “Wife” [f.]
    • Mia moglie ha due anni più di me.
      “My wife is two years older than me.”


  • Figlio — “Son” [m.]
    • Ho un figlio di 12 anni.
      “I have a 12-year-old son.”


  • Figlia — “Daughter” [f.]
    • Tua figlia va all’università o lavora?
      “Is your daughter studying at university or working?”


  • Nonni — “Grandparents” [m.]
    • Ho passato molto tempo con i miei nonni da bambino.
      “As a child, I spent a lot of time with my grandparents.”


  • Nonno — “Grandfather” [m.]
    • Mio nonno è stato un grande maestro per me.
      “My grandfather was a great teacher for me.”


  • Nonna — “Grandmother” [f.]
    • Mia nonna adora ballare.
      “My grandmother loves dancing.”


Family

8- Italian Nouns for Body Parts



Learn the most important nouns for body parts in Italian:

  • Corpo — “Body” [m.]
    • I ballerini hanno corpi slanciati.
      “Dancers have slender bodies.”


  • Occhio — “Eye” [m.]
    • Gli occhi blu sono stupendi.
      “Blue eyes are gorgeous.”


  • Orecchio — “Ear” [m.] [Strangely enough, when plural this noun becomes feminine.]
    • Le orecchie di Dumbo sono giganti.
      “Dumbo’s ears are huge.”


  • Testa — “Head” [f.]
    • Mi fa male la testa.
      “My head hurts.”


  • Spalla — “Shoulder” [f.]
    • Marta ha un tatuaggio sulla spalla sinistra.
      “Marta has a tattoo on her left shoulder.”


  • Braccio — “Arm” [m.] [When plural, it becomes feminine.]
    • Mi ha presa tra le braccia e mi sono innamorata.
      “He took me in his arms and I fell in love.”


  • Petto — “Chest” [m.]
    • Il dolore al petto può essere sintomo di infarto.
      “Chest pain could be a symptom of a heart attack.”


  • Pancia — “Stomach” [f.]
    • Ha una grande pancia rotonda.
      “He’s got a big, round stomach.”


  • Schiena — “Back” [f.]
    • Mio marito ha dei problemi alla schiena.
      “My husband has back problems.”


  • Gamba — “Leg” [f.]
    • Mi sono rotto una gamba cadendo dalle scale.
      “I broke a leg by falling from the stairs.”


9- Most Important Italian Nouns for Time



Nouns 4
  • Oggi — “Today” [m.]
    • Oggi è un giorno importante.
      “Today is an important day.”


  • Ieri — “Yesterday” [m.]
    • Ieri sono andato al cinema.
      “Yesterday I went to the cinema.”


  • Domani — “Tomorrow” [m.]
    • Laura arriverà domani mattina.
      “Laura will arrive tomorrow morning.”


  • Lunedì / martedì / mercoledì / giovedì / venerdì / sabato / domenica — “Monday” / “Tuesday” / “Wednesday” / “Thursday” / “Friday” / “Saturday” / “Sunday” [All masculine except domenica, which is feminine.]
    • Mercoledì lavoro, mentre giovedì sono di riposo.
      “On Wednesday I’m working, while on Thursday I’m off.”


  • Giorno — “Day” [m.]
    • Che giorno è oggi?
      “Which day is today?”


  • Settimana — “Week” [f.]
    • Tornerò tra una settimana.
      “I’ll be back in a week.”


  • Mese — “Month” [m.]
    • Il mese prossimo ho un esame.
      “I have a test next month.”


  • Anno — “Year” [m.]
    • Quest’anno ho viaggiato molto.
      “I’ve traveled a lot this year.”


  • Ora — “Hour” [f.]
    • Tra un’ora sarò a casa.
      “I’ll be home in an hour.”


  • Minuto — “Minute” [m.]
    • Aspetta un minuto.
      “Wait a minute.”


3. Learn Italian at Your Pace with ItalianPod101

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M or F? A Quick Guide to Italian Gender Rules

Thumbnail

Why is it important to study Italian gender rules? Unlike in English, gender in Italian is the first characteristic of every noun. In Italian, everything has a gender, and you need to know which gender it is to use a noun with the correct article, adjective, or pronoun. When you search for a word in an Italian dictionary, you’ll always find the gender next to it (m/f).

You won’t find a neutral gender for Italian names, but from day one of your Italian class, you’ll start hearing that everything has to “agree.” This means that all parts of the phrase have to be in accordance with the word gender (and number).

So, here we go with a simple grammar guide about the gender of nouns in Italian.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Italian

Table of Contents

  1. What is Word Gender?
  2. How to Make a Good Guess on the Gender of a Word
  3. How to Memorize the Gender of Italian Nouns
  4. Gender Agreement for Articles and Adjectives
  5. Irregulars and Weird Exceptions
  6. Names with Totally Different M./F. Equivalents
  7. Conclusion

1. What is Word Gender?

The Symbols for Male and Female

Femminile o Maschile? (Feminine or Masculine?)

In Italian, there are two gender categories: Femminile (“Feminine” ) and Maschile (“Masculine” ). This means that there is no neutral gender.

This might sound a bit strange, but in Italian, objects such as chairs (la sedia, f.) and tables (il tavolo, m.), animals such as lions (il leone, m.) and tigers (la tigre, f.), feelings such as doubt (il dubbio, m.) and happiness (la felicità, f.) have a m/f gender, and you need to memorize which word is what gender. The best way to do this is to practice repeating the noun together with the right article; the article always shows you clearly what the gender of the word is.

Some words, such as the names of animals, have feminine/masculine equivalents that sometimes have a different form, like mucca/toro (“cow/bull” ) or gallina/gallo (“hen/rooster” ). These are mostly farm or pet animals. Other wild animals have an assigned gender in the Italian language (by whom, I ask myself…?),such as una tigre (“a tiger,” f.) and un rinoceronte (“a rhinoceros,” m.). If you want to make a word feminine, you’ll have to add femmina or maschio (“female” or “male” ) next to it. For example, un rinoceronte femmina (“a female rhinoceros” ).

A Rhino and Her Child

Un rinoceronte femmina. (“A female rhinoceros.” )

This is also the case for professions. If there’s no feminine equivalent, you should add donna (“woman” ) after the name of the profession to solve any ambiguity: un ingegnere donna (“a woman engineer” ).

2. How to Make a Good Guess on the Gender of a Word

Besides looking up the gender in the Italian dictionary, there are basic gender rules in Italian to follow to understand if a word is feminine or masculine. The easiest clue is to check the ending of the word as, generally, words ending in -o (plural ending in -i) are masculine while words ending in -a (plural ending in -e) are feminine.

  • Questo libro (m) ha una bella copertina (f).
    “This book has a nice cover.”
  • La mia casa (f) è bella e comoda.
    “My house is nice and comfortable.”

That sounds pretty straightforward, but things get a bit more complicated because there are a bunch of words ending in -e that could be either gender. Don’t worry, there are a few Italian language gender rules, but you’ll just need to memorize the words that don’t fit these rules. It’s hard work at the beginning, but soon you’ll get the hang of it.

  • Il nostro è un amore (m.) infinito.
    “Ours is an infinite love.”
  • Ho trovato la tua lezione (f.) molto utile.
    “I found the lesson very useful.”

3. How to Memorize the Gender of Italian Nouns

Now you have the main rule (-o is masculine and -a is feminine), but what you really need is some tips to quickly know and memorize the gender of other Italian words. Here’s a list of endings that have a certain consistency and will help you determine the gender:

  • Are feminine:
    • All names ending in -ione (stazione; stagione; opinione) (“station”; “season”; “opinion” ).

      A Milano c’è una stazione molto bella. (“Milan has a beautiful train station.” )
      L’estate è la stagione più calda. (“Summer is the hottest season.” )

    • Names ending in -tà or -tù (città; felicità; virtù; gioventù) (“city”; “happiness”; “virtue”; “youth” ).

      Roma è la città eterna. (“Rome is the eternal city.” )
      Hai visto il film ‘La meglio gioven?’ (“Did you see the movie The Best of Youth?” )

    • Most names ending in -i in the singular (crisi; sintesi) (“crisis”; “synthesis” ).

      Hai fatto una sintesi molto chiara. (“You did a very clear synthesis.” )
      La crisi di governo è prossima. (“The government crisis is close.” )

    • Most names of fruit (banana; pera; mela) (“banana”; “pear”; “apple” ).

      Questa mela è dolcissima. (“This apple is very sweet.” )

    • Names of the sciences and other abstract notions (chimica; fisica; giustizia; pace) (“chemistry”; “physics”; “justice”; “peace” ).

      La matematica è bellissima! (“Math is beautiful!” )

      A Graffiti Peace Sign

      La pace è femminile! 😉 (“Peace is feminine!” ) 😉

  • Are masculine:
    • All names ending in -ore (calore; attore; professore; ecc.) (“heat”; “actor”; “professor”; “etc.” ). Notice how nouns of professions ending in -tore are made feminine with the -trice ending, as in attore >> attrice (“actor >> actress” ).

      Oggi c’è un calore intenso. (“Today there is an intense heat.” )
      Hai incontrato il mio professore? (“Did you meet my professor?” )

    • Most names of trees (melo; pero) (“apple tree”; pear tree” ). While in English, to make the name of a fruit tree, you have to add “tree,” in Italian you just switch the gender of fruit from feminine to masculine…rather convenient, right?

      Maria è caduta dal pero. (“Maria fell off the pear tree.” )

      Fun fact: Did you know that cadere dal pero is an idiomatic expression meaning that you were oblivious of something? Maybe this is because pear trees are rather tall and common in Italy; to be on top of it means that you’re less in contact with reality…

      Bunches of Pears

      Cadere dal pero (“To fall from the pear tree” ) really means “to have no idea.”

    • Greek origin names ending in -ma (problema; sistema; teorema) (“problem”; “system”; “theorem” ).

      Questo problema è molto serio. (“This problem is very serious.” )
      Non ho mai capito il teorema di Pitagora. (“I have never understood Pythagoras Theorem.” )

      Notice how, even if they end in -a in the singular, the plural of these names in -ma of Greek origin have a masculine regular plural in -i (il problema >> i problemi).

    • All names of foreign origin ending in a consonant (bar; sport) (“bar”; “sport” ).

      Il mio sport preferito è la pallacanestro. (“My favorite sport is basketball.” )
      Questo è il bar dove servono il caffè migliore della città. (“This is the bar where they serve the best coffee in town.” )

    • Names of (most) professions ending in -ta (poeta; pilota; astronauta). Note that some of them become feminine using the -essa ending, as in poetessa while others don’t change, such as la pilota or la giovane astronauta).

      Il più grande poeta Italiano è Dante. (“Dante is the greatest Italian poet.” )

    • Names of months and days (except for domenica (f) = “Sunday”).

      È stato il dicembre più caldo del secolo! (“It was the hottest December of the century!” )

    • All numbers (except for numbers indicating hours).

      Il tre è il numero perfetto. (“Three is the perfect number.” )
      Il 99% degli Italiani adora la pizza! (“99% of Italians love pizza!” )

Are you ready for a little practice? Can you tell the Italian grammar gender of the nouns listed in this video?

4. Gender Agreement for Articles and Adjectives

Let’s talk about the dreaded concordanza (“the agreement” ). First things first, in Italian, most nouns need to be introduced by the article (determinate or indeterminate) and they have to agree in gender (and number) with the noun.

So, in order to memorize the gender of the words (besides the few Italian noun gender rules mentioned above), the best way is to memorize article + noun as a unique entity. The article always tells you clearly what the gender is.

    la lezione (f.) (“the lesson” )
    il fiore (m.) (“the flower” )

Here’s a little reminder of the way m./f. definite and indefinite articles change their form according to phonetic rules:

Determinate Masculine Article (the)
Sing. Pl.
il i This is the regular form and is more commonly used.
lo gli This form is used in front of nouns starting with specific letters:

  • S+consonant, z, x, y, gn, and ps
    • Lo studente >> gli studenti (“the student” >> “the students” )
  • Vowel (where lo >>l’)
    • L’italiano >> gli italiani (“the Italian” >> “the Italians” )

Determinate Feminine Article (the)
Sing. Pl.
la le Same as for the masculine, in front of a vowel, the article la >> l’:

  • L’italiana >> le italiane (“the Italian” >> “the Italians” )
  • La casa >> le case (“the house” >> “the houses” )

Indeterminate Masculine Article (a/an)
un This is the more commonly used form in front of a consonant or a vowel:

  • Un bambino (“a kid” )
  • Un italiano (“an Italian” )
uno This form is used in front of nouns starting with S+consonant, z, x, y, gn, and ps:

  • Uno studente (“a student” )

Indeterminate Feminine Article (a/an)
una In front of a vowel, the article una >> un’:

  • Un’italiana (“an Italian” )
  • Una casa (“a house” )

So, we were talking about the agreement: all variable parts of the sentence have to agree with the gender (m./f.) and the number (sing./pl.) of the noun. Variable parts are:

    – Articles (definite/indefinite)
    – Adjectives
    – Possessive adjectives (my; yours)
    – Demonstrative adjectives (this; that)
    – Indefinite adjectives (some)
    – Pronouns (him; her; it)
    – Past participle

Let’s analyze a sentence like this one, where the main noun is masculine (bambino = “kid” ):

Il mio bambino (m) é andato a scuola. (“My kid went to school.” )

Article + possessive + noun + (verb) + past participle; they all agree to the masculine form, except for the object (a scuola).

Or let’s take this one:

Nessuna pizza (f) è buona come questa. (“No pizza is as tasty as this one.” )

Indefinite + noun + (verb) + adjective + demonstrative; they all agree to the feminine form, except the verb.

Notice how the verbs don’t have to agree with the gender in Italian. But you do have to ensure that the past participle, which is part of the passato prossimo (“present perfect” ), agrees when it’s conjugated with the essere (“to be” ) auxiliary verb. But this will be part of another lesson coming up shortly about Italian conjugations on ItalianPod101.com!

Finally, one of the main consequences of all these Italian grammatical gender rules is that when you speak or write in Italian, you first have to think of the gender of the main noun, and then you can form the sentence accordingly.

5. Irregulars and Weird Exceptions

As usual, when it comes to syntax and grammar, there are exceptions. In particular, you might find nouns that look masculine because they end in -o but are feminine. These feminine -o nouns are often shortened words, such as:

  • la radio (“radio” )      is short for radiotrasmettitrice
  • la foto (“photo” )       is short for fotografia
  • la moto (“bike” )       is short for motocicletta
  • l’auto (“car” )            is short for automobile

Couple of People Riding 
around on a Vespa

È una moto? No, è una Vespa! (“It’s a motorcycle? No, it’s a Vespa!” )

Similar, but opposite, is the case of il cinema (short for cinematografo.)

A little different is the case of la mano (“hand” ) because it’s not the shortened version of anything.

Then there are names, mainly of professions, that have the same ending of -ista or -a, and can be either masculine or feminine. And this is a typical situation where you have to rely on the article, agreement, or purely the context, to figure out the gender.

Ending in -ista: il/la turista (“the tourist” ); il/la dentista (“the dentist” ); il/la giornalista (“the journalist” ).

    La turista è contenta. (“The tourist is happy.” )
    Questo giornalista sportivo scrive per la Repubblica. (“This sports’ journalist writes for la Repubblica.” )

Ending in -a: il/la collega (“the colleague” ); lo/la psichiatra (“the psychiatrist” ).

    Il mio collega mangia sempre in ufficio. (“My colleague always eats in the office.” )
    È un bravo psichiatra. (“He is a good psychiatrist.” )

Notice how in both cases, the plural of these nouns in -ista/-a ends in -e for feminine and in -i for masculine:

  • La turista          >> Le turiste
  • Il turista            >> I turisti
  • La collega        >> Le colleghe
  • Il collega          >> I colleghi

Then there’s the most bizarre of all cases: when a noun changes gender according to the number, that is, if it’s singular or plural. There are not—luckily—too many of those, but they are very common words:

Singular is masculine Plural is feminine
L’uovo Le uova “The egg/s”
Il dito Le dita “The finger/s”
Il braccio Le braccia “The arm/s”
Il paio Le paia “The pair/s”
Il riso Le risa “The laugh/s”
L’osso Le ossa “The bone/s”
Il lenzuolo Le lenzuola “The sheet/s”
Il muro Le mura “The walls”

6. Names with Totally Different M./F. Equivalents

Some names form their feminine counterpart from a very different root. We’ve already seen the case of pet/farm animals. Besides those, most of the other names belong to the relatives‘ category. See the examples below:

m f m f
fratello sorella “brother” “sister”
padre madre “father” “mother”
uomo donna “man” “woman”
marito moglie “husband” “wife”
genero nuora “son-in-law” “daughter-in-law”
dio dea “god” “goddess”

7. Conclusion

Italian gender rules can be a bit complicated, so you’ll need to learn a few tricks and practice, practice, practice. Do you want to know more? Do you want to practice with podcasts, lesson materials, and videos? Check out ItalianPod101.com for more, and keep up the good work!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if Italian gender rules are similar or different from those in your own language (or if your language has them at all!). We look forward to hearing from you!

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A Comprehensive Guide to Italian Prepositions

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Italian prepositions are like almost everything else in the Italian language: hard to understand at the beginning, but poetic and lovely to the ear. Well, with this comprehensive guide to prepositions in Italian by ItalianPod101, you’ll learn Italian prepositions in the blink of an eye.

We’ll cover the basics of Italian prepositions and when to use them, using charts and examples so that understanding Italian prepositions has never been clearer. It’s Italian prepositions made easy!

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Table of Contents

  1. What is a Preposition?
  2. How to Use Italian Prepositions
  3. Main Italian Prepositions
  4. Main Prepositions + Article
  5. Learn Italian with Ease at ItalianPod101

1. What is a Preposition?

But first, we must start with the basics: the very definition of a preposition.

A preposition is a small word that connects two words or sentences that have a specific relationship to each other.

For example: The cat is in the box. The preposition here doesn’t connect them in a one+one relation—that’s a conjunction (e.g. Angela and Luke are going to meet some friends).

Instead, a preposition adds some information regarding the relationship between the two elements it connects. For example, it tells you that the cat is in the box, not on the box or beside it.

Italian Prepositions

2. How to Use Italian Prepositions

In Italian, there are basically two different kinds of prepositions:

  • Main prepositions (preposizioni proprie in Italian)
  • Main prepositions + article

Then there are words that can be used as prepositions but also have other uses (preposizioni improprie in Italian), and prepositions made of more than one word. In this article, we’ll talk about the main prepositions (preposizioni proprie) and their combinations with articles.

Yes, we know, grammar is complicated. But we’ll show you how to use prepositions in Italian with the help of some examples, and everything will become much simpler.

3. Main Italian Prepositions

The main prepositions in Italian are: di, a, da, in, con, su, per, tra, fra. Let’s see each one of them in detail.

1- Di

As far as simple prepositions in Italian go, di is by far the most important and versatile preposition of all. It may have a lot of different functions within a sentence. The most important are:

  • Specification
    • Aspettiamo l’arrivo di Marta.
      “We are waiting for Marta’s arrival.”
  • Naming
    • Stiamo entrando nella città di Roma.
      “We are now entering the city of Rome.”
  • Fault
    • Il colpevole di questo crimine è stato trovato.
      “The person who’s guilty of this crime has been found.”
  • Penalty
    • Ho dovuto pagare una multa di 80 euro.
      “I had to pay an eighty-euro fine.”
  • Origin
    • Sono di Bologna.
      “I’m from Bologna.”
  • Subject
    • Vorrei parlarti di Marco.
      “I’d like to talk to you about Marco.”
  • Agent
    • I tuoi pantaloni sono macchiati di sugo all’arrabbiata.
      “Your trousers are stained with arrabbiata sauce.”
  • Material
    • Adoro le case di legno.
      “I love wood houses.”
  • Abundance
    • Lucia è sempre così piena di energia.
      “Lucia is always so full of energy.”
  • Limitation
    • Il Marocco è un paese povero di acqua.
      “Morocco is a country that’s poor in water.”
  • Cause
    • Sto tremando di rabbia.
      “I’m shaking with rage.”
  • Partition
    • Questa è la piazza più bella di tutte quelle che abbiamo visto.
      “Of all the squares we’ve seen, this is the most beautiful.”
  • Comparison
    • Firenze è più piccola di Milano.
      Florence is smaller than Milan.”
  • Quality
    • Cerchiamo persone di talento.
      “We are looking for talented people.”
  • Weight or measure
    • Ho comprato un melone di 3 chili.
      “I’ve bought a three-kilo melon.”
  • Specific time (when)
    • La libreria è chiusa di lunedì mattina.
      “The bookstore is closed on Monday mornings.”
  • Continued time
    • Ho fatto un viaggio di un mese negli Stati Uniti.
      “I took a one-month trip to the United States.”

It can also connect a sentence with a clause. For example:

  • Teresa mi ha chiesto di tornare da lei.
    “Teresa has asked me to come back to her.”
  • Ti ringrazio di essere così gentile con me.
    “Thank you for being so kind to me.”
  • Ti ordino di smettere.
    “I order you to stop.”

Learn Italian Prepositions

2- A

Another one of the simple Italian prepositions is a, which becomes ad when used before a word that starts with a vowel. It may be used in a sentence for many purposes:

  • Indirect object
    • Questa canzone è dedicata a mia moglie.
      “This song is dedicated to my wife.”
  • Being in a place
    • Stasera voglio stare a casa.
      “Tonight I want to stay at home.”
  • Specific time (when)
    • Comincerò l’università a settembre.
      “I’ll start university in September.”

It can also connect a sentence with a clause when the clause is related to a cause or goal:

  • Mi sbagliavo a fidarmi di lui.
    “I was wrong to trust him.”
  • Sono venuto a congratularmi con te.
    “I’ve come here to congratulate with you.”

3- Da

Da is another Italian preposition with a lot of different functions. In a sentence, the most important are:

  • Going from a place
    • Sono partito da Roma questa mattina.
      “I left Rome this morning.”
  • Going to someone
    • Per favore, torna da me.
      “Please, come back to me.”
  • Being at someone’s place
    • Stasera vado a dormire da Michela.
      “Tonight I’m going to sleep at Michela’s place.”
  • Agent and cause
    • Marco è stato aiutato dai suoi amici.
      “Marco has been helped by his friends.”
  • Separation
    • Luca è molto diverso da suo fratello.
      “Luca is very different from his brother.”
  • Specific time (from when)
    • Il corso ricomincerà da lunedì.
      “The course will start again on Monday.”
  • Continued time (for how long)
    • Danila è a casa da due ore.
      “Danila has been home for two hours.”
  • Price
    • Il mio capo ha un’auto da 80.000 euro.
      “My boss owns a 80.000-euro car.”
  • Manner
    • Si è comportato da stupido.
      “He acted stupid.”
  • Purpose
    • I tuoi occhiali da sole sono davvero belli.
      “Your sunglasses are really nice.”

It can also connect a sentence to a clause related to a goal or consequence. For example:

  • Ho riso tanto da piangere.
    “I laughed so much that I cried.”
  • Mi resta solo un episodio da vedere.
    “I just have one episode left to see.”

Letters

4- In

This preposition is mostly used for the following functions:

  • Being in a place:
    • L’ufficio è in via San Felice.
      “The office is on San Felice Street.”
  • Period of time:
    • Ho speso tutto il mio stipendio in 5 giorni.
      “I spent all my salary in five days.”

5- Con

Con is basically the same as the English preposition “with”:

  • Aspetta, vengo con te.
    “Wait, I’ll go with you.”
  • Con questo caldo, bisogna bere molta acqua.
    “With this heat, you have to drink a lot of water.”

6- Su

Su is used mainly for:

  • Being on something
    • Il gatto è salito su un albero.
      “The cat has climbed on a tree.”
  • Manner
    • Prepariamo torte su richiesta.
      “We bake cakes upon request.”
  • Subject
    • Ho scritto un libro sulla mia esperienza.
      “I’ve written a book about my experience.”
  • Fraction

Prepositions in the Italian Language

7- Per

In most sentences, per can be translated to the English preposition “for.” For example:

  • Oggi devo comprare un regalo per mia figlia.
    “Today I have to buy a present for my daughter.”
  • Per un bel concerto, sono capace di fare centinaia di chilometri.
    “I can travel hundreds of kilometers for a good concert.”
  • Il vestito sarà pronto per venerdì.
    “The dress will be ready on Friday.”
  • Giulia parte per New York domani mattina.
    “Giulia is leaving for New York tomorrow morning.”

But it’s also used for clauses related to a cause or goal:

  • Sono partito un’ora fa per arrivare puntuale.
    “I left an hour ago to arrive on time.”
  • Per fare carriera il mio collega farebbe qualsiasi cosa.
    “To move up in his career, my colleague would do anything.”

8- Tra and fra

Tra and fra are identical in meaning and function. Their main uses in a sentence are:

  • Going through a place
    • Siamo passati tra le due case.
      “We passed between the two houses.”
  • Distance (in space and time)
    • Arriveremo tra due ore.
      “We’ll arrive in two hours.”
  • Company
    • Amo passare le vacanze fra amici.
      “I love to spend the holidays among friends.”
  • Continued time
    • Tra il 2015 e il 2018 ho abitato a Milano.
      “From 2015 to 2018 I lived in Milan.”

Milan

4. Main Prepositions + Article

Italian prepositions and articles combine to form single words. But it’s important to note that Italian articles and prepositions combine only when the article is definite. That’s to say, only when it’s il, la, lo, l’, le, i, or gli, and when the preposition is di, a, da, in, and su (con and per only in ancient Italian). Everything will be clearer with this Italian prepositions + articles chart:

Il La L’ Lo I Gli Le
Di Del Della Dell’ Dello Dei Degli Delle
A Al Alla All’ Allo Ai Agli Alle
Da Dal Dalla Dall’ Dallo Dai Dagli Dalle
In Nel Nella Nell’ Nello Nei Negli Nelle
Su Sul Sulla Sull’ Sullo Sui Sugli Sulle

Here are some examples of Italian prepositions and articles:

  • Hai portato la macchina dal meccanico?
    “Have you brought the car to the mechanic?”
  • Ho lasciato l’agenda sulla scrivania, al lavoro.
    “I’ve left my diary on the desk, at work.”
  • Attento, è pericoloso tuffarsi dagli scogli!
    “Careful, it is dangerous to dive from the rocks!”

5. Learn Italian with Ease at ItalianPod101

Grammar can be harsh and complicated, but it’s easy to learn when you can follow the lessons whenever you want and study in an entertaining, interactive environment. That’s ItalianPod101.

Here on our site, you’ll find comprehensive guides like this one that’ll help you become a master of the Italian language, with tons of examples and tips. Download our apps or enjoy our video lessons from your PC, and whenever you have a doubt or just want to chat, you can find fellow students on our forum. Don’t be shy!

Before you go, let us know in the comments how you feel about Italian prepositions. More confident, or do you still need some Italian prepositions help? We look forward to hearing from you, and will help out the best we can!

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Life Event Messages: Happy Birthday in Italian & More

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Being part of your family’s, friends’, and colleagues’ life events is important in having a loving and caring relationship with them. That’s why we at ItalianPod101 have listed the most important messages for life events in Italy: In this article, you’ll learn how to say Happy Birthday in Italian, Italian Christmas greetings, messages you can use in case of funerals or marriages, and much more.

With our guide to life event messages in Italian culture, you’ll always know what to say.

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Table of Contents

  1. The Best Messages for Life Events in Italy
  2. Speak and Behave Like a Real Italian with ItalianPod101

1. The Best Messages for Life Events in Italy

1- How Do You Say Happy Birthday in Italian?

Happy Birthday

Birthdays are very important for Italians, especially for the children (and their parents), and the elderly. To wish someone you know a happy birthday will make them happy, and make them feel like you care for them.

Some people—especially middle-aged men and women—are very private about their birthday, and prefer not to celebrate it. But you’ll never be considered impolite if, without knowing their attitude, you wish them happy birthday. They’ll simply tell you that they don’t like birthdays and you’ll just have to avoid mentioning it next year.

Here’s our answer to the question “How do you say happy birthday in Italian?”: It depends on the occasion. Some examples are:

  • Buon compleanno – “Happy birthday.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • Felice compleanno – “Happy birthday.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing. Less common than Buon compleanno.
  • Tanti auguri di buon compleanno – “Many wishes of a happy birthday.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.

How Do You Say Happy Birthday in Italian

2- What to Say in Case of Pregnancy & Birth

Baby showers aren’t common in Italy, but you should send your best wishes when someone’s pregnant or when a baby is born. Here’s a list of Italian greetings for life events full of joy, like pregnancy or birth.

In case of a pregnancy, here’s how you can offer congratulations in Italian:

  • Congratulazioni per la bellissima notizia. – “Congratulations for the wonderful news.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • Auguri per l’attesa più dolce che ci sia. – “My best wishes for the sweetest expectation.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations. Mostly used in writing.

In case of a newborn:

  • Benvenuto/benvenuta… (name of the baby) – “Welcome…” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • I miei/nostri auguri di tanta felicità a… (name of the baby) – “My/our wishes of a happy life for…” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.

italian Greeting for Life Events

3- What to Say for a Graduation

A graduation is always something to celebrate, and Italy is no exception. As always, how to greet a new graduate depends on your relationship with that person:

  • Congratulazioni, dottore/dottoressa. – “Congratulations, graduate.” Suitable for informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • Auguri per la tua laurea. – “My best wishes for your graduation.” Suitable for informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • Congratulazioni e tanti auguri per i futuri successi. – “Congratulations and my best wishes for your future success.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.

Fun fact: In many Italian university cities, graduations are often celebrated in a pretty extreme way. The newly graduated are ordered to drink, dress in a fun way, and forced to walk around the city while their friends make fun of them, play jokes, and read rhymed verses talking about them in an often vulgar way.

4- What to Say in Case of a New Job or Promotion

A new job is a new opportunity, and it’s always something to celebrate, especially in times of crisis. Here are a few Italian phrases of congratulations for this occasion:

  • Congratulazioni per il tuo nuovo lavoro. – “Congratulations on your new job.” Suitable for informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • Congratulazioni per la sua nuova posizione lavorativa. – “Congratulations on your new job position.” Suitable for formal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • Congratulazioni per il nuovo lavoro, ti auguro che ti dia tante soddisfazioni. – “Congratulations on your new job, I wish that you receive great satisfaction from it.” Suitable for informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.

New Job

5- What to Say When Someone Retires

Retirement is an important—and often a most-desired—step in everyone’s life. Like everywhere in the world, not everyone is happy about it, but most people are.

Nice things to say in case of retirement are:

  • Congratulazioni, ma sappi che al lavoro ci mancherai tanto! – “Congratulations, but remember that we’ll miss you so much at work.” Informal, for speaking and writing, when addressing a colleague who has just retired.
  • Congratulazioni e ora goditi il tuo tempo libero! – “Congratulations, and enjoy your free time now!” Informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Dopo una vita di successi, congratulazioni per il suo pensionamento. – “After a life of successes, congratulations on your retirement.” Formal, for speaking and writing.

6- Italian Congratulations: Weddings & Engagements

Marriage Proposal

Even if more and more Italians choose to live together without marrying, marriage is still considered an important step. Celebrations vary and depend on the couple’s desires and wealth. Some just do a little toast with their closest friends and relatives, while others invite hundreds of people to a huge lunch or dinner party. Anyway, friends, relatives, and simple acquaintances should wish well to the couple.

Some things that you may say to the newlyweds are:

  • Vi auguro una vita di felicità. – “I wish you a life of happiness.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, and for both speaking and writing.
  • Felicitazioni per il vostro matrimonio. – “Congratulations for your wedding.” Formal, for writing.
  • Auguri e felicità ai novelli sposi. – “My best wishes and happiness to the newlyweds.” Suitable for both formal and informal situations, mainly for writing.

Greetings for Life Events in Italy

7- Messages in Case of a Death/Funeral

When a loved person dies, it’s important to be there for their family and make them feel that you’re close. Most Italians do a Christian funeral a few days after the departure of their loved one. The day or night before the funeral, relatives, friends, neighbors, and acquaintances usually come to visit (at home or at the funeral home), and gather around him/her to pray.

Some Italian phrases for condolences include:

  • Condoglianze a te e alla tua famiglia. – “Condolences to you and your family.” Informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Le mie più sentite condoglianze a lei e alla sua famiglia. – “My most heartfelt condolences to you and your family.” Formal, for speaking and writing.
  • Vicini nel dolore, porgiamo sentite condoglianze. – “We are close to you in your pain and we give you our heartfelt condolences.” Formal, for writing.

8- What to Say in Case of Bad News

Basic Questions

It can be tricky to know how to react properly when someone from another culture tells you they just had bad news. Some good examples are:

  • Mi dispiace tanto. – “I’m so sorry.” Informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Ti sono vicino/vicina. Se hai bisogno conta su di me. – “I’m close to you. If you need anything, count on me.” Informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Mi dispiace della brutta notizia, se ha bisogno di aiuto la prego di farmelo sapere – “I’m sorry for the bad news, if you need any help please let me know.” Formal, for speaking and writing.

9- What to Say When Someone’s Injured or Sick

When someone’s injured or sick, it’s common courtesy to wish them to get well soon. Here’s how:

  • Riposati e torna in forma al più presto. – “Rest and get well soon.” Informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Le auguro una pronta guarigione. – “I wish you a quick healing.” Formal, for speaking and writing.
  • Prenditi cura di te e torna presto. – “Take care of yourself and come back soon.” Informal, for speaking and writing.

10- Greetings for the Most Important Holidays in Italy

How do you say Merry Christmas in Italian? What are the most popular Italian Easter greetings?

Holiday greetings are one of the most important life event messages in Italian family culture. Life event messages in Italian are seen as a way to show your affection to others, especially within the family.

Christmas is the most important holiday in Italy, and when it approaches, you’re supposed to visit your family or at least call to give your best wishes.

Let’s see the best ways to wish a Merry Christmas in Italian, and other Italian holiday greetings:

  • Buon Natale. – “Merry Christmas.” Formal and informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Buon anno. – “Happy New Year.” Formal and informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Buon natale e felice anno nuovo. – “Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.” Formal and informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Buona Pasqua. – “Happy Easter.” Formal and informal, for speaking and writing.
  • Buone vacanze. – “Happy holidays.” Formal and informal, for speaking and writing.

Merry Christmas in Italian

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Italian Adjectives List: The Top 100 Adjectives

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Adjectives, in any language, are what we use to better describe what we’re talking about. They give color and meaning to our words. So, learning the top 100 Italian adjectives right away will help you quickly improve your conversation skills.

If you check an Italian grammar book or website, you’ll find out that there are many types of them:

  • Demonstratives: questo; quello — “this; that”
  • Qualificatives: bello; brutto — “nice; ugly”
  • Possessives: mio; tuo — “my; your”

And there are many others!

Try and memorize a big list of Italian adjectives and their opposites. Let’s have fun with easy grammar lessons and exercises on how to use Italian adjectives with ItalianPod101.com. Andiamo! (Let’s go!)

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Table of Contents

  1. Italian Adjectives Rules: How Do You Use Italian Adjectives?
  2. Italian Adjectives List of the Top 100+ Italian Adjectives
  3. Conclusion

1. Italian Adjectives Rules: How Do You Use Italian Adjectives?

First things first: Do Italian adjectives agree?

Yes, they need to agree in gender and number with the noun they refer to (and with the verbs, too!). So, when you’re speaking or writing, pay attention to the noun and note if it’s singular or plural, and masculine or feminine. And then, don’t forget to make the ending of the adjective and the noun agree, as in: una bella casa or “a nice house.”

Now, do adjectives come before or after nouns in Italian? In terms of position, the Italian adjective generally follows the noun. Yes, this is the opposite of what an anglophone is used to, so you’ll have to pay special attention to remember where to place the adjective in a sentence.

But, as you know, Italian grammar can have quite a few exceptions, and some adjectives can appear either before or after the noun, with a slightly different meaning.

This is the case with some of the most common Italian adjectives, the ones that you’ll find yourself using all the time. There isn’t a fixed rule for when you can invert the order, but here’s a tip: The adjective put after the noun is denotative (the meaning is literal). The adjective put before the noun is connotative (the meaning is figurative).

That’s why it’s very important to practice, practice, practice…can you guess the difference between the phrases listed below? If not, check this lesson!

bello* “beautiful; nice” Un bel giorno / un giorno bello
“A nice day”
buono** “good; tasty” Un buon amico / un amico buono
“A good friend”
bravo “good; able” Una brava ragazza / una ragazza brava
“A good girl”
brutto “ugly; bad” Un brutto film / un film brutto
“A bad movie”
caro “dear; expensive” Una cara amica / una amica cara
“A good friend”
cattivo “bad” Un esempio cattivo / un cattivo esempio
“A bad example”
giovane “young” Un giovane attore / un attore giovane
“A young actor”
grande “large; great” Una grande montagna / una montagna grande
“A big mountain”
lungo “long” Un viaggio lungo / un lungo viaggio
“A long trip”
nuovo “new” Un nuovo libro / un libro nuovo
“A new book”
piccolo “small; little” Una piccola casa / una casa piccola
“A small house”
stesso “same” Il giorno stesso / lo stesso giorno
“The same day”
vecchio “old” Un vecchio palazzo / un palazzo vecchio
“An old building”
vero “true” Un vero amore / un amore vero
“A true love”

*This adjective follows the same rule as the definite articles il, lo, i, gli, la le, so it changes its form according to the noun that follows, as in these examples:

  • Un bel libro, as in il libro
    “A nice book”
  • Un bello sport (lo sport)
    “A nice sport”
  • Che begli occhi! (gli occhi)
    “What beautiful eyes!”
  • Dei bei ragazzi (i ragazzi)
    “Some good-looking boys”

This irregular adjectives rule does not apply if you place the adjective after the noun, as in un libro bello (a nice book).

Venice

Una bella giornata a Venezia (“A beautiful day in Venice”)

**The adjective buono (good; tasty) follows the same rule as the indefinite articles un, uno, un’, una, so it changes its form according to the noun that follows, as in these examples:

  • Un buon amico, as in un amico
    “A good friend”
  • Una buona scuola (una scuola)
    “A good school”
  • Sei una buon’amica (un’amica)
    “You are a good friend.”

This irregular adjectives form does not apply if you place the adjective after the noun, as in un amico buono (but in this case, the meaning is a little different as it means “a good-hearted friend”).

Other irregular Italian adjectives are grande and santo (“big” and “saint” respectively). In front of a masculine noun starting with a consonant, they change into gran and san:

  • Tuo papà è un gran signore
    “Your dad is a great gentleman.”
  • Quella è la statua di San Tommaso
    “That is Saint Thomas statue.”

A very common use of adjectives is with the auxiliary verb essere (“to be”), in simple sentences such as: il mio gatto è bello (“My cat is nice.”).

In the case of demonstrative, indefinite, or possessive adjectives, as in most other languages, they always come before the noun:

  • Il mio gatto
    “My cat”
  • Questo gatto
    “This cat”
  • Alcuni gatti
    “Some cats”

2. Italian Adjectives List of the Top 100+ Italian Adjectives

Improve Pronunciation

Ready to learn Italian adjectives? Here’s our list of the most common Italian adjectives you should know, with their meanings and example sentences!

1- Describing dimensions, sizes, distance, number, and frequency

Among the most common and useful Italian adjectives are those that we use to describe how things are, relative to dimensions, distance, frequency, etc.

The best way to learn adjectives and memorize their meaning is to pair them up with their opposites:

  • grande / piccolo — “big” / “small”

    These can also be used in the sense of “older” / “younger”: Quando ero piccolo volevo fare l’astronauta or “When I was young, I wanted to be an astronaut.”

  • largo / stretto — “wide” / “narrow”

    These adjectives are used in Italian both for physical description, such as a for a street, or they can be used to mean “large” / “tight” as in clothes:

    La strada era molto larga.
    “The road was very wide.”

    Questi pantaloni sono un po’ stretti.
    “These pants are a bit tight.”

  • alto / basso — “tall” / “short” or “high” / “low”

    These opposite adjectives are also used to describe two different kinds of qualities, as they can refer to the height of something like a person or mountain, to volume, or even to moral qualities:

    Mia sorella è più bassa di me.
    “My sister is shorter than me.”

    Il volume della musica è troppo alto.
    “The music volume is too high.”

  • pesante / leggero — “heavy” / “light”

    Ho il sonno molto leggero.
    “I have a very light sleep.”

  • vicino / lontano — “close” / “far”

    Non ti sento, sei troppo lontano
    “I can’t hear you, you are too far.”

When we’re describing quantities, we can’t do without indefinite adjectives, which are used to talk in general terms without being too specific about the exact amount (of things, people, etc.). That’s why they’re called “indefinite.” There are many indefinite adjectives in Italian, but the most commonly used are:

  • Alcuni — “some” [always plural]

    Alcuni bambini piangono sempre.
    “Some children cry all the time.”

  • Poco — “little” / “few”

    Pochi giorni fa
    “A few days ago”

  • Molto — “many”

    A Firenze ho visitato molti musei
    “In Florence I visited many museums.”

  • Ogni — “each” [invariable + singular]

    Vado in Italia ogni anno
    “I go to Italy every year.”

  • Qualche — “some” / “a few” [invariable + singular]

    Ho qualche idea.
    “I have a few ideas.”

Indefinite adjectives, like possessive adjectives, can become adverbs if they’re used alone without a noun. You might want to check the rules on them.

2- Describing value

Whenever we talk, we’re always prone to judge the people or things around us. These useful Italian adjectives describe what we think about their value, and will help us in our conversations about them.

  • buono / cattivo — “good” / “bad”

    As in English, this adjective has a double meaning, both moral and relative to taste.

    Pinocchio è diventato un bambino buono.
    “Pinocchio became a good boy.”

    Questo gelato è molto buono.
    “This ice cream is very good.”

  • bello / brutto — “beautiful” / “nice” and “ugly” / “bad”

    Ho fatto un brutto sogno.
    “I had a bad dream.”

  • fantastico / terribile — “amazing” / “awful”

    Oggi è una giornata fantastica.
    “Today is an amazing day.”

3- Describing feelings & senses

Italian adjectives for sensations and feelings, or for physical descriptions, are often used around the kitchen. These, for example, are the progression of adjectives linked to temperature:

  • Gelato — “icy” / “frozen”

    Vado a pattinare sul lago gelato.
    “I go swimming on the frozen lake.”

  • Freddo — “cold”

    La zuppa è diventata fredda.
    “The soup got cold.”

  • Tiepido — “warm”

    La sera bevo del latte tiepido.
    “At night I drink warm milk.”

  • Caldo — “hot”

    Preferisco il té caldo.
    “I prefer hot tea.”

  • Bollente — “scalding”

    Attenzione, l’acqua è bollente!
    “Watch out, the water is scalding.”

Two Cones of Chocolate Ice Cream

Did you know that Gelato means “frozen”?

Other adjectives refer to the sense of touch, such as:

  • morbido / duro — “soft” / “hard”

    Questo letto è molto duro.
    “This bed is very hard.”

  • liscio / ruvido — “smooth” / “rough”

    Hai una pelle incredibilmente liscia!
    “You have incredibly smooth skin!”

  • piacevole / doloroso — “pleasant” / “painful”

    È un ricordo doloroso.
    “It is a painful memory.”

4- Describing personalities, human behaviors, and feelings

The range of people’s personalities, behaviors, and feelings are countless. And Italians definitely belong to one of those cultures that like to show their feelings and have no problem exposing their personalities in public! Let’s see the most common Italian adjectives to describe people. Try a little exercise to describe yourself!

Positive words 🙂

  • Gentile — “kind”

    Sei molto gentile.
    “So kind of you.”

  • Aperto — “open-minded”

    Giulia ha una mentalità aperta.
    “Giulia is open-minded.”

  • Divertente — “fun”

    Questo viaggio è stato divertente.
    “This trip was fun.”

  • Comico — “funny”

    È comico: mi fa proprio ridere.
    “He is funny: he makes me laugh a lot.”

  • Felice — “happy”

    Sono felice di vederti.
    “I am happy to see you.”

  • Contento — “glad” / “pleased”

    Anch’io sono contenta che tu sia qui.
    “I am also glad that you are here.”

  • Negative words 🙁

  • Triste — “sad”

    Non essere triste!
    “Don’t be sad!”

  • Solo — “lonely” / “alone”

    Oggi mi sento solo.
    “Today I felt lonely.”

  • Notice how the verbs such as “I feel” (mi sento) are reflexive in Italian, and need to be conjugated with the reflexive pronouns.

  • Arrabbiato — “angry” / “mad”

    La mia amica è arrabbiata con me.
    “My friend is angry at me.”

  • Matto / pazzo — “crazy”

    Sto diventando matto…
    “I am going crazy…”

5- Describing speed, difficulty, importance, etc.

Snail On a Table

Sei veloce come un fulmine, o lento come una lumaca? (“Fast as a lightning or slow as a snail?”)

  • rapido-veloce / lento — “fast” / “slow”

    Il treno veloce va da Milano a Roma in 3 ore.
    “The fast train goes from Milan to Rome in 3 hours.”

  • facile / difficile — “easy” / “hard”

    Sarà difficile da dimenticare.
    “It will be hard to forget.”

  • importante / inutile — “important” / “useless”

    Non mi piacciono le riunioni inutili.
    “I don’t like useless meetings.

6- Describing colors

What would the world be without colors? We definitely need them in our lives, and we’ll need to know all the colors in Italian:

  • Rosso — “red”

    Bevo solo vino rosso.
    “I only drink red wine.”

  • Verde — “green”

    Vorrei indossare le scarpe verdi.
    “I’d like to wear the green shoes.”

  • Bianco — “white”

    Mi sposerò con il vestito bianco.
    “I’ll get married wearing the white dress.”

  • Nero — “black”

    Compila il modulo con una penna nera.
    “Fill out the form with a black pen.”

  • Giallo — “yellow”

    L’arbitro ha estratto il cartellino giallo.
    “The referee pulled out the yellow card.”

  • Marrone — “brown”

    Ho gli occhi marroni.
    “I have brown eyes.”

  • Arancione — “orange”

    C’è una macchina arancione nel parcheggio.
    “There is an orange car in the parking lot.”

Note that while most of the colors are adjectives that need to show agreement with the noun they refer to, a few of them are invariable and don’t change into masculine or feminine, singular or plural:

  • Rosa — “pink”

    Perché le bambine si vestono di rosa?
    “Why do all the little girls wear pink?”

  • Viola — “purple”

    Il Colore Viola è un bellissimo film
    “The Color Purple is a great movie.”

  • Blu — “blue”

A Rainbow in a Field

Rosso, giallo, verde… li sai i colori dell’arcobaleno? (“Red, yellow, green… do you know all the rainbow colors?”)

And finally, colors come in all kinds of shades, so it’s important to be familiar with chiaro (light) and scuro (dark).

For even more information on colors, check out our Italian colors vocabulary list!

7- Describing shapes

Adjectives that describe shapes are not only useful when we’re studying geometry, but will also help us with describing objects in everyday life.

  • Rotondo — “round”

    Il tavolo rotondo
    “The round table”

  • Circolare — “circular”

    Una economia circolare
    “A circular economy”

  • Quadrato — “square”

    Una cornice quadrata
    “A square frame”

  • Rettangolare — “rectangular”

    Un campo rettangolare
    “A rectangular field”

  • Sferico — “spherical”

    La palla è un oggetto sferico.
    “The ball is a spherical object.”

8- Describing weather

The weather is one of the most common conversation topics of all time. So, it’s no wonder that there are a great number of adjectives to describe the weather. Some of the most common are:

  • caldo / freddo — “hot” / “cold”

    Quest’anno ci sarà un inverno freddo.
    “This year, there will be a cold winter.”

  • soleggiato / nuvoloso — “sunny” / “cloudy”

    Domani sarà una giornata nuvolosa.
    “Tomorrow it will be a cloudy day.”

  • umido / afoso — “humid” / “muggy”

    Odio le estati umide.
    “I hate humid summers.”

  • piovoso / nevoso / ventoso — “rainy” / “snowy” / “windy”

    L’autunno in Italia è molto piovoso.
    “The fall in Italy is very rainy.”

Weather Documents

Piovoso? Soleggiato…? (“Will it be rainy? Will it be sunny?”)

For more weather words in Italian, check out our fun and useful weather article!

9- Describing taste

Not only are Italians notoriously into eating good food…but they also love to talk about food. All the time! So if you want to participate in these conversations around the table, you better start practicing with essential Italian adjectives for describing tastes:

  • buono / saporito / gustoso — These are all synonyms to use when something tastes good!

    Questa pizza è molto buona / saporita / gustosa.
    “This pizza is very good.”

  • Dolce — “sweet”

    Quest’uva è molto dolce.
    “These grapes are very sweet.”

  • Salato — “salty”

    Mangiare cibo salato non fa bene.
    “Salty food is not good for you.”

  • Aspro — “sour” as a lemon
  • Acerbo — “sour” / “unripe” as not ripe
  • Acido — “acidic” / “sour” as yogurt would be
  • Amaro — “bitter” (can also mean “unsweetened” )

    Non mi piace il caffè amaro (senza zucchero).
    “I don’t like coffee with no sugar in it.”

  • piccante / pepato

    Do you prefer your food with “red pepper” (piccante) or “black pepper” (pepato)? In both cases, note that these adjectives are also used to mean the “sexy” kind of spicy!

Woman Biting a Lemon

Aspro come un limone (“Sour as a lemon”)

10- Describing situations

Adjectives describing situations will help you tell your Italian friends about what happened to you or to people you know. They are also going to be particularly helpful when describing a movie, a book or an event:

  • Divertente — “fun”

    Imparare l’italiano con ItalianPod101 è divertente!
    “Learning Italian with ItalianPod101.com is fun!”

  • Pericoloso — “dangerous”

    Questa è una strada pericolosa.
    “This is a dangerous road.”

  • Interessante — “interesting”

    Ho visto un documentario interessante.
    “I saw an interesting documentary.”

  • Noioso — “boring”

    Durante il film mi sono addormentata: era proprio noioso!
    “During the movie I fell asleep: it was really boring!”

  • Comico — “funny”

    Totò era un attore comico.
    “Totò was a funny comedian.”

Do you want to practice? Try this little exercise: describe with as many adjectives as you can the last Italian movie you saw.

11- Describing physical traits or physical conditions

Let’s finish this guide of the top 100 (and more) common Italian adjectives with a little pettegolezzo (gossip). It’s just human to notice and comment on traits and conditions of our friends and acquaintances. Nothing wrong with physical descriptions, as long as we keep it respectful. So, let’s have a little fun commenting on how people look, behave, and are dressed. What do you think…?

  • forte / debole — “strong” / “weak”

    Va sempre in palestra e adesso è molto forte.
    “He goes to the gym all the time and now he’s very strong.”

  • malato / in forma — “sick” / “healthy”
  • ricco / povero — “rich” / “poor”

    È una famiglia molto povera
    “It’s a very poor family.”

  • ordinato / disordinato — “neat” / “messy”

    La tua stanza è disordinata?
    “Is your room messy?”

  • Carino — “cute” / “pretty”

    Mi piace quel ragazzo, è molto carino.
    “I like that guy, he’s very cute.”

  • grasso / magro — “fat” / “thin”

    I miei amici sono tutti magri… come fanno?
    “My friends are all thin…how do they do it?”

  • elegante / malvestito — “elegant” / “sloppy”

    Tua madre è una donna elegante
    “Your mother is an elegant woman.”

3. Conclusion

Reading

When talking to your Italian friends, your family, or colleagues at work, adjectives will enrich your Italian conversation and make you sound like a pro! But don’t stop here. To improve even more, visit our site, or check out our apps and blog. And keep having fun learning with ItalianPod101! You’ll be speaking like a native before you know it!

Before you go, drop us a comment using some of these Italian adjectives in a paragraph! You choose the topic. 😉

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