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Lesson Transcript

Betsey: Hi everyone! Welcome back to ItalianPod101.com. This is Lower beginner, Season 1 Lesson 21 - Are You Too Busy for Italian Aperitivo? I’m Betsey.
Ofelia: Ciao! I’m Ofelia.
Betsey: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to express duty.
Ofelia: You'll also learn how to use the verb dovere. Such as in the sentence Mi dispiace, devo lavorare fino a tardi.
Betsey: I’m sorry, I have to work until late.
Ofelia: This conversation takes place on the phone.
Betsey: It’s between Jack and Claudio. The speakers are friends, so they’ll be using informal language.
Ofelia: Ascoltiamo
Ofelia: In this lesson, we’ll talk about the aperitivo.
Betsey: Hmm, what is that?
Ofelia: It’s a pre-dinner drink and it can either be alcoholic, like a glass of wine or a cocktail, or non-alcoholic, like a soft drink.
Betsey: Ah, I see.
Ofelia: The word aperitivo comes from the verb aprire, meaning “to open”,
Betsey: Because this drink opens the palate before dinner, right?
Ofelia: That’s right! There is always food to nibble on with your aperitivo too.
Betsey: What kind of food?
Ofelia: It depends on the bar, but usually there are olives and chips. Some places also make more snacks, and even plates with focaccia or pizza, fruit salads, roasts, and cold cuts like prosciutto or salami.
Betsey: Mhmm it seems delicious! What are some popular drinks?
Ofelia: You can have a Negroni, which is a cocktail made with Campari, Martini Rosso vermouth, and gin, or an Americano, which is a mix of Campari, Martini Rosso vermouth, and soda.
Betsey: My Venetian friend also told me about something called a spritz.
Ofelia: Ah yes, a spritz is made with Aperol or Campari, and prosecco.
Betsey: Ok, and what time does aperitivo start?
Ofelia: It usually starts around 6pm and finishes around 8pm.
Betsey: I’d love to try it! Okay, now onto the vocab.
Betsey: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Ofelia: The first word is... APERITIVO
Ofelia: aperitivo is a drink people have before dinner. As we’ve said, it can be alcoholic, or a soft drink. You can say prendere l’aperitivo or fare l’aperitivo.
Betsey: “to have aperitivo.” Can you give us a couple of examples?
Ofelia: Vieni a prendere l’aperitivo al bar?
Betsey: Will you come to have aperitivo at the cafe?
Ofelia: Facciamo l’aperitivo tutti insieme!
Betsey: Let’s all have aperitivo together!
Betsey: What's the next one we'll look at?
Ofelia: TARDO
Betsey: LATE
Ofelia: This word can be an adjective or an adverb. As an adjective, it declines like the ‘–o’ ending adjectives.
Betsey: For example
Ofelia: tardo pomeriggio
Betsey: late afternoon
Ofelia: tarda serata
Betsey: late evening
Ofelia: The adverb is tardi, and it is unchangeable.
Betsey: For example
Ofelia: Arrivi sempre tardi.
Betsey: You always arrive late.
Betsey: The last one we'll look at is...
Ofelia: Note that in Italian, it’s not possible to say things like ‘avere una doccia’ or ‘prendere una doccia’. We do also say fare il bagno,
Betsey: ...which means “to have or to take a bath.” Let’s hear some examples.
Ofelia: Sono tutto sporco e sudato! Faccio il bagno.
Betsey: I’m all dirty and sweaty! I’ll have a bath.
Ofelia: Vuoi fare la doccia adesso o più tardi?
Betsey: “Do you want to have a shower now or later?” Okay, now let’s move onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Ofelia: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the verb dovere.
Betsey: Which means “To have to,” “must,” “to owe.” It’s a modal verb, and conjugates in an irregular way. Here is its conjugation.
Ofelia: Io devo
I must
Tu devi
You must
Lui/lei deve
he/she must
Noi dobbiamo
We must
Voi dovete
You must (plural)
Loro devono
They must
Ofelia: Like all modal verbs, dovere is followed by an infinitive verb.
Betsey: Can you give us a sample sentence?
Ofelia: Devo incontrare un cliente per cena.
Betsey: I have to meet a client for dinner.
Ofelia: Dovete già tornare a casa?
Betsey: Do you already have to go back home?
Ofelia: Now let’s look at the usage of the verb dovere.
Betsey: Firstly...
Ofelia: The verb dovere expresses an order from somebody else.
Betsey: For example…
Ofelia: Luisa deve finire questo progetto prima di domani.
Betsey: Luisa has to finish this project before tomorrow.
Ofelia: Secondly, the verb dovere expresses a self- imposed duty.
Betsey: For example…
Ofelia: Devo risparmiare tanto per comprare una casa.
Betsey: I must save a lot in order to buy a house.
Ofelia: Third, the verb dovere expresses a rule or regulation.
Betsey: For example…
Ofelia: Qui devi guidare a 30 chilometri all’ora.
Betsey: Here you must drive at 30 kilometers per hour.
Ofelia: The verb dovere can be followed by a direct object.
Betsey: When it is followed by a noun as a direct object, it means “to owe”.
Ofelia: Devo due dollari a Giovanna.
Betsey: I owe two dollars to Giovanna.
Ofelia: We’ll now learn how to make the negative form of the verb dovere.
Betsey: The adverb non precedes the modal verb dovere.
Ofelia: The meaning of the verb changes into ‘not to need’.
Betsey: Here are some sample sentences.
Ofelia: Non dobbiamo andare a scuola domani. E’ festa.
Betsey: We don’t need to go to school tomorrow. It’s a holiday.
Ofelia: Non devi cucinare stasera. Ho preso la pizza.
Betsey: “You don’t need to cook tonight. I got a pizza.” Listeners, make sure to check the lesson notes to reinforce what you’ve learned in this lesson.


Betsey: OK. That's all for this lesson.
Ofelia: Thank you all for listening! A presto!
Betsey: See you next time!


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ItalianPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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What would you like to have for "aperitivo"?

ItalianPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 06:05 PM
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Hi Joan Blench,

Good question and excellent answer!:thumbsup:

Normally in Italian the order is noun-adjective, but with common adjectives, such as "vecchio" ("old") the order can be also be adjective-noun.

1. noun-adjective => most of the times the adjective has a denotative value, which means that the adjective has the simple meaning of "elderly".

2. adjective-noun => most of the times the adjective has a connotative value, which means that it can also express a wider meaning, in this case "long-standing friend" and sometimes also "dear long-standing friend".

I hope this helps!

Grazie e a presto!


Team ItalianPod101.com

Joan Blench
Friday at 10:41 AM
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Ho una domanda dalle sezione di espansione vocabulario

I have a question from the vocabulary expansion section

In English, the sentence "I met an old friend" is ambiguous in that one doesn't know whether "old" refers to the friend's age or the length of time the friendship has lasted. Does the same problem exist in Italian? Or does the position of the word "vecchio" affect its meaning?

Vecchio amico = long-standing friend

Amico vecchio / amico anziano = elderly friend

Grazie in anticipo per la vostra spiegazione

Thank you in advance for making this clear.