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Lesson Transcript

Betsey: Hi everyone! Welcome back to ItalianPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner Season 1 Lesson 2 - What Do You Do in Your Free Time in Italy? I’m Betsey.
Ofelia: Ciao! Ofelia here! In this lesson you'll learn how to use regular verbs in –are, -ere, -ire.
Betsey: This conversation takes place at the bar after school.
Ofelia: It’s between Mieke and Jack. The speakers are friends, so they will be using informal language.
Betsey: Let's listen to the conversation.
Betsey: Ofelia, I recently read a survey about whether Italian people like their routines or not. What’s an average day in the life of an Italian?
Ofelia: As you can imagine, in the morning people have a cappuccino and pastry in their usual bar.
Betsey: Do you like to do that?
Ofelia: Yes, I do, and so do many Italian people!
Betsey: Ok, and what about work?
Ofelia: People usually drive to work. According to the survey, most people - when asked about work - said that they would prefer to have the same job until retirement.
Betsey: That’s interesting. Then what about after-work activities?
Ofelia: Well, they are not very active! After work, most people go home, have dinner and spend the evening watching TV.
Betsey: Really? But this routine changes on the weekend, right?
Ofelia: It does! People in Italy hang out with their friends on the weekends, usually on Saturday night.
Betsey: What do Italians do with their friends?
Ofelia: They usually like eating good food and drinking delicious wine, either at home or in restaurants.
Betsey: I see, that sounds good. Okay now let’s move onto the vocab.
Betsey: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first one we'll look at is...
Ofelia: Here's a sample sentence. ‘Che cosa fai mercoledì sera?’
Betsey: “What are you doing on Wednesday evening?”
Ofelia: Here, the word ‘Sera’ means “evening”, and together, you can say ‘mercoledì sera’ to mean ‘Wednesday evening.’
Betsey: Ofelia, could we go over the days of the week?
Ofelia: Sure. Let’s start with “Monday”. First, ‘Lunedì’. (PAUSE)
Betsey: Monday. Then what about Tuesday?
Ofelia: martedì. (PAUSE)
Betsey: Wednesday?
Ofelia: mercoledì. (PAUSE)
Betsey: Thursday?
Ofelia: giovedì. (PAUSE)
Betsey: Friday?
Ofelia: venerdì. (PAUSE)
Betsey: Saturday?
Ofelia: sabato. (PAUSE)
Betsey: Sunday?
Ofelia: domenica. (PAUSE)
Betsey: Are they all masculine?
Ofelia: They are all masculine, except for ‘domenica’ which means “Sunday”.
Betsey: You can see this list of the days of the week in the lesson notes.
Ofelia: Please note that the first letter is not capitalized like in English.
Betsey: Okay! What’s the next word?
Betsey: WEEK
Ofelia: Here's a sample sentence. “In una settimana ci sono sette giorni.”
Betsey: In a week there are seven days.
Ofelia: The word ‘settimana’ is feminine. Here, it has the word ‘sette’ inside, which means the number ‘Seven.’
Betsey: That’s a good tip to memorize the word. Are there any expressions with ‘settimana’?
Ofelia: Yes. First, let’s take a look at “fine settimana” Here, ‘fine’ means ‘end’ and “settimana’ means ‘week.’
Betsey: So it literally means ‘the end of week.’ or ‘weekend’ in English.
Ofelia: Can you guess what this word means - settimana bianca.
Betsey: What does the second word mean?
Ofelia: bianca means “white” so altogether it means “white week.”
Betsey: And...that’s for skiing season right?
Ofelia: That’s right. People call the skiing week as settimana bianca or “white week”. For example, you can say ‘Maria trascorre la settimana bianca a Cortina.’
Betsey: “Mary spends the skiing week in Cortina.” Okay, now, let’s move on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Betsey: The focus of this lesson is the conjugation of Italian verbs in the present indicative.
Ofelia: Yes. Italian verbs are divided into three conjugation groups, according to the ending of the infinitive.
Betsey: Could you briefly introduce them one by one?
Ofelia: Sure. In the first group, all verbs end with –A.R.E. or ‘Are.’ For example, lavorare (SLOWLY), meaning “to work” in English.
Betsey: What about the second group?
Ofelia: In the second group, all verbs end in –E.R.E or ‘ere’. For example leggere (SLOWLY) meaning “to read” in English.
Betsey: Ok, and what about the third one?
Ofelia: All the verbs in the third group end with ‘I.R.E’ or ‘ire.’ For example, dormire (SLOWLY) the word meaning ‘to sleep’ in English.
Betsey: Italian verbs are conjugated in the various persons and numbers, by adding the proper ending to the stem.
Ofelia: Exactly. When you read regular verbs in Italian, you just need to substitute the infinitive endings, -are, -ere, -ire, with the right person and number ending. It is easier than it seems.
Betsey: Can you give us an example?
Ofelia: Of course. From the first group, ‘LAVORARE’, meaning “to work”, you can conjugate them by replacing the infinitive ending ‘-are.’
Betsey: Okay, let’s check them one by one by changing the subject. What about the subject ‘I’ or the first person pronoun?
Ofelia: You can put ‘O’, instead of ‘are.’
Betsey: For example, “I work” can be..
Ofelia: ‘lavor-o’. You can take out the ‘ARE’ at the end of the verb, then put ‘O’ instead. Therefore, ‘Lavor-O.’
Betsey: What about “you work?” (informal)
Ofelia: You can put “I” instead. So it’d be ‘Tu lavor-i’.
Betsey: What about “he or she works”?
Ofelia: You can put ‘A’ at the end. So it will be ‘Lui lavor-a’, or ‘lei lavor-a’. Remember that ‘LEI LAVORA’ is also the polite way to say ‘you work’.
Betsey: What about ‘We work?’
Ofelia: You can use ‘iamo’ at the end, so it will be ‘Noi lavor-iamo’
Betsey: And there’s also the pronoun meaning ‘you’ in plural, right?
Ofelia: Right. When you use the verb with the pronoun ‘Voi’, it should be ‘Voi lavor-ate’. You can put ‘-ATE’ in the place of ‘-ARE’.(PAUSE)
Betsey: Okay, let’s check the last one. What about ‘They work?’
Ofelia: You can replace ‘ARE’ with ‘ANO.’ So it should be. ‘Loro lavor-ano.’
Betsey: Okay, now let’s take a look at the verbs in the second group ending with ‘ere’
Ofelia: ‘ERE’ verbs are very similar, but there are some differences. Let’s go over the differences, but here we’ll just compare to the conjugation rules of the first group.
Betsey: Sure. How do you say ‘He reads’ or ‘She reads?’
Ofelia: ‘Lui legg-e or Lei legg-e’ (Pause) ‘Lui legg-e or Lei legg-e’. Here, you can put ‘E’ at the end.
Betsey: It’s different that you had to put ‘A’ when you conjugate the verbs ending with ‘Are.’
Ofelia: That’s right.
Betsey: And you can find the same difference when using the pronoun ‘Voi’, right?
Ofelia: That’s right. You can say ‘You read’ as ‘Voi legg-ete’ (PAUSE) ‘Voi legg-ete’
Betsey: So it’s not ‘a.t.e’, but ‘e.t.e’, E instead of A when talking about the second group.
Ofelia: That’s right.
Betsey: What about “they read?”
Ofelia: It’s ‘Loro legg-ono’ (PAUSE) ‘Loro legg-ono.’ Here, you can use ‘ono’ for the second group, very similar to ‘Ano’ for the first group.
Betsey: Okay, then, let’s take a look at the third group, which ends with ‘IRE.’ Let’s go over the differences in that group. How do you say “He sleeps” or “She sleeps”.
Ofelia: It’s ‘Lui dorm-e or Lei dorm-e’ (PAUSE) ‘Lui dorm-e’ or ‘Lei dorm-e’
Betsey: So it’s the same as the second group. Then what about with the pronoun ‘Voi?’
Ofelia: It’s ‘Voi dorm-ite’ (PAUSE) ‘Voi dorm-ite.’ You can use ‘ite’ for the verbs in the third group. For the pronoun ‘Loro’, you can use the same word ‘ono’ as you used for the second group.
Betsey: Make sure you check the lesson notes to reinforce everything you’ve learned in this lesson.


Betsey: OK. That's all for this lesson. Thanks for listening everyone, and see you next time!
Ofelia: A presto!


Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

ItalianPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hi listeners! What do you like to do in your free time?

ItalianPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 12:52 AM
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Hi Adrian Joseph,

if you're talking to a single person, use "tu".

If you're talking to 2 or more people, use "voi". You can think of "voi" as "you all".


Sara talking to Bob: Tu parli italiano?

Sara talking to Bob and Lara: Voi parlate italiano?

Hope this helps!


Team ItalianPod.com

Adrian Joseph
Wednesday at 04:02 AM
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What's the difference of the word "tu" and "voi"?

For example:

"tu sei tornato" You have come

"voi siete tornati" You have come

And when to use the "voi"?

Thank you

ItalianPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:26 PM
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Hi Anthony,

Thank you for posting.

Please, feel free to ask and comment as often as you need. :wink:



Team ItalianPod101.com

Tuesday at 12:31 AM
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It definitely helps!!!

Grazie mile!!


ItalianPod101.com Verified
Friday at 05:59 PM
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Ciao Anthony,

Thank you for posting.

They have the same meaning, but it's better to use "oppure" at the beginning of a sentence or when you want to emphasize it.

I hope this helps!

Thank you,


Team ItalianPod101.com

Thursday at 08:29 AM
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I have a question about the use of "oppure" versus "o" ...

I think they both mean "or" in English.

Please tell me when you would use one over the other?

Thank you in advance.